Aquaculture means the cultivation/ farming of aquatic organisms in human controlled environment(s). Fish farming is an aspect of aquaculture that deals strict of sensors, with the rearing of fish related organisms in human controlled environment.
The culture of fish dates back to over 4000years in S. E. Asia and entails a lot of diverse practices.
Types of Aquaculture/ Fish farming
The grouping of types of aquaculture/ fish farming I'd filled with many considerations. When considered based on the aquatic environment used, aquaculture/ fish farming can be grouped as saltwater aquaculture (mariculture) brackish aquaculture (i.e. lagoon aquaculture) and fresh water aquaculture ( in rivers, streams and lakes in the inland). Based on the species combinations, aquaculture can be grouped ad monoculture and polyculture. Also, based on the scale of production, aquaculture can be group as homestead/ backyard aquaculture.
However, for the purposes of convenience, aquaculture can be grouped as:
1. Extensive aquaculture/ fish farming
2. Semi-intensive aquaculture/ fish farming
3. Intensive aquaculture
Extensive Aquaculture/ fish farming
Here, fish species used can be monoculture or polyculture. Aquaculture in extensive system relies on natural available food in the pond and as such the farmer does not engage in a supplemental feeding. A typical extensive fish farming system has low stocking density, longer cropping time and relatively low fish output. The former had very minimal input such as the addition of fertiliser to stimulate the growth of natural food but never the addition or use of supplemental feed sizes in extensive system are usually very large with very little labour requirement
Semi-intensive Aquaculture/ Fish Farming
In this system, the stocking densities are higher than that of the extensive system and use of supplemental feeding is obtainable. Semi-intensive system also use moderate level of input and it's fish out is relatively higher than that of extensive systems. Fertilizer and/or supplemental feeding is used in Semi-intensive aquaculture. Fish health and pond water quality management is obtainable in intensive systems. Pond sizes are made to manageable sizes.
Intensive Aquaculture system
This systems require high level of management input. The stocking rate is optimal with relatively very high yield. Intensive aquaculture uses the highest level of management input and with high control culture environment and stock.
Aquaculture environment and stock.
Aquaculture/ Fish farming Management techniques:
The management of aquaculture entitled the management of fish stock, water culture environment and other ecological variables. In all, aquaculture/ fish farming management techniques involves all duties which are required for the successful and sustainable fish farm operation. These techniques includes;
1. Fish stock management :
The fish species used for aquaculture include; Clark as gariepinus, Heterobranchus bodosarlis, or Roch omissions nilocticus, Gymnarchus niloticus, Cyprinus carpio, Heterotis niloticus among others
Several factors qualify a species for culture, these include: ability to accept man made diets, rapid growth, serval in captivity, cultural accept ability to reproduce in captivity. Other things considered in fish stocks manage in aquaculture Include: stock assessment, feed and feeding, and stock selection and stocking density.
2. Pond design, construction and management:
The choice of design and construction of an enclosure for the culture of fish affected by many factors namely: soil type/ suitability, water quality, accessibility, proximity to market, capital and infrastructure among others.
With a clear idea of the above factors fish ponds can be classified into two major type, namely:
a. Geophores and
Geophores: Are those fish enclosure which are fully or partially land borne e.g.: earth pond, concrete pond etc.
Aquaphores: Are fish enclosure that are fully or partially water - bone e.g.: pens, fish cage, fish pots etc.
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