Cairo, the vibrant and bustling capital of Egypt, is a city steeped in history and brimming with iconic landmarks that tell tales of its glorious past. This article delves into the rich historical tapestry of Cairo, unveiling its remarkable landmarks and inviting readers on a journey through time.
One cannot explore Cairo’s history without encountering the majestic Citadel of Cairo, a formidable fortress that has stood sentinel over the city for centuries. Stepping through its imposing gates like Bab al-Futuh, Bab al-Nasr, and Bab Zuweila, visitors are transported back to a bygone era.
The bustling markets of Khan el-Khalili beckon, offering a glimpse into Cairo’s vibrant trade history. The Qasaba of Radwan Bey, the elegant Bayt Al-Suhaymi, and the enlightening Salihiyya Madrasa stand as testaments to Cairo’s Architectural grandeur.
As we traverse this historical journey, we will also uncover the intricacies of the city’s water dispensers and schools, like the Sabil-Kuttab of Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda, the Wikala of Sultan Qaytbay, and the Madrasa of Uljay al-Yusufi.
Join us as we delve into the tales of Cairo’s past, exploring its remarkable landmarks that have witnessed centuries of culture, trade, and architectural splendor. Also, we have a separate article about the palaces of Cairo.
A brief history of Cairo
Cairo, often referred to as “The Mother of the World,” is a city with a rich and complex history that spans millennia. Its origins can be traced back to ancient times when it was already a strategic location at the crossroads of Upper and Lower Egypt, situated between the Nile Valley and Nile Delta regions.
In antiquity, Memphis and Heliopolis were prominent cities in the vicinity, both contributing to the area’s historical significance.
The foundations of modern Cairo began to take shape during the Roman period when the fortress of Babylon was established along the east bank of the Nile, serving as a crucial point for the Nile-Red Sea canal.
Nearby, the settlement of Tendunyas or Umm Dunayn thrived, evidence of the area’s importance. The city saw various ups and downs, particularly during the Byzantine-Sassanian War, which led to partial abandonment.
In the 7th century, the Muslim conquest of Byzantine Egypt by Amr ibn al-As resulted in the founding of Fustat, a new administrative capital. This marked the beginning of Cairo’s Islamic era, and Fustat played a central role in Egypt’s governance.
With time, new settlements emerged, such as al-Askar, and critical infrastructure like the Nilometer on Roda Island was built.
In the late 9th century, Ahmad ibn Tulun established the city of al-Qata’i, north of Fustat, marking a period of greater autonomy. The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, an architectural masterpiece, stands as a testament to this era. However, Tulunid rule was eventually replaced by the Abbasids.
The rise of the Fatimids brought further transformation to the region. They founded al-Manṣūriyyah, the precursor to modern Cairo, as the capital of their caliphate. The city’s name changed to Cairo, signifying its connection with the arrival of Caliph al-Mu’izz li Din Allah.
During Badr al-Gamali’s tenure as vizier, the city walls were rebuilt, and iconic gates like Bab al-Futuh were constructed.
Cairo reached its zenith during the Fatimid period, serving as a hub of trade and craftsmanship. Multi-story residences, an early form of communal living, became a feature of the cityscape. Nevertheless, the decline of Fustat began with its burning in 1168 by the Fatimid vizier Shawar.
Saladin’s ascendancy marked a turning point. He established the Ayyubid dynasty, built the Cairo Citadel, and initiated the expansion of Cairo eastward. Under Mamluk rule, the city thrived both economically and culturally, with impressive architectural achievements like the Mosque of Sultan Hasan.
By the 16th century, Cairo faced new challenges, including the Black Death and political instability. However, the Mamluks continued to contribute to the city’s cultural legacy and urban development.
Ottoman and modern Cairo
In the early 16th century, Ottoman rule subdued Cairo’s political influence after the Battle of Marj Dabiq in 1516, relegating it to a provincial capital. However, the city continued to thrive as a vital economic and cultural center.
It facilitated trade routes for Yemeni coffee and Indian textiles, becoming instrumental in supplying the barren Hejaz during the annual hajj pilgrimage.
During this era, al-Azhar University gained prominence, cementing its status as a leading Islamic institution. The first Middle Eastern printing press, established by Italian Jews, emerged in Cairo in the mid-16th century.
Under Ottoman rule, Cairo expanded south and west, becoming the empire’s second-largest city. However, by the late 18th century, its population had declined from its Mamluk-era peak. The French briefly occupied Cairo in 1798 but were later replaced by British and Ottoman forces.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian, ascended to power in 1805, instituting significant reforms that laid the foundation for modern Egypt. His grandson, Isma’il Pasha, further modernized the city, envisioning wide avenues and European-inspired infrastructure, though financial constraints limited the scope of his plans.
The British occupation, lasting until 1956, witnessed Cairo’s rapid growth and the emergence of upscale neighborhoods like Garden City, Zamalek, and Heliopolis.
The city was profoundly affected by the 1952 Cairo Fire and the subsequent departure of the British. President Gamal Abdel Nasser initiated redevelopment projects, enhancing infrastructure and expanding the city.
The latter half of the 20th century saw Cairo’s population explode, with informal housing settlements proliferating. New planned cities, such as Madinat Nasr, emerged in the east, while the city solidified its role as a political and economic hub for North Africa and the Arab world. In 1979, UNESCO recognized the historic districts of Cairo as a World Heritage Site.
Cairo’s history took another dramatic turn in 2011 when Tahrir Square became the epicenter of the Egyptian Revolution, leading to the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak. Today, Cairo stands as a testament to resilience, continually adapting to the challenges of its time while preserving its rich heritage.
The Citadel of Cairo
The Citadel of Cairo, also known as the Citadel of Saladin, stands as a testament to the rich history and architectural legacy of Egypt. Located on a commanding promontory of the Mokattam hills in the heart of Cairo, this medieval Islamic-era fortification was constructed by the legendary Salah ad-Din, more commonly known as Saladin, in the 12th century.
It was initially designed as a defensive stronghold to protect Cairo from potential Crusader attacks and establish a secure seat of government.
Over the centuries, the Citadel underwent significant development under various rulers. During the Mamluk Sultanate, which spanned from the 13th to the 16th centuries, notable structures like the Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad and the Ablaq Palace were added.
The Ottoman period, which followed, saw the construction of mosques like the Sulayman Pasha Mosque and changes in the Citadel’s layout.
However, it was during the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha in the 19th century that the Citadel saw some of its most transformative changes. Muhammad Ali undertook an ambitious project to modernize and expand the complex.
He built the striking Mosque of Muhammad Ali, which still graces the Citadel’s skyline today. His reign also brought the construction of new gates, including Bab al-Qulla and Bab al-Jadid, along with other structural enhancements.
In the 20th century, the Citadel had various military uses, including during the British occupation and by the Egyptian Army. Fortunately, it was opened to the public in 1983, allowing visitors to explore its rich history and architectural marvels.
One of the engineering marvels within the Citadel is the Well of Joseph, a remarkable 85-meter-deep well constructed during Saladin’s time. The well, also known as the Spiral Well, used a unique system of waterwheels to bring water up from deep underground.
The Citadel is not just a historical fortress; it’s also a cultural treasure. It houses several mosques, including the Mosque of Muhammad Ali, the Al-Nasir Muhammad Mosque, the Sulayman Pasha Mosque, and the lesser-known Mosque of al-‘Azab. These mosques reflect the architectural styles of different eras and dynasties.
Moreover, the Citadel is home to some of Cairo’s museums, such as the Egyptian National Military Museum, Al-Gawhara Palace Museum, Carriage Museum, and the Police Museum, each offering a glimpse into Egypt’s military history and heritage.
Today, the Citadel of Cairo stands as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a living testament to the changing epochs and rulers of Egypt. Its historical and architectural significance continues to captivate visitors from around the world, making it a must-visit destination for those seeking to explore the vibrant history of Cairo and Egypt as a whole.
Bab al-Futuh, or the “Conquest Gate,” stands proudly as one of the few remaining gates of Cairo’s ancient city wall. Located at the northern terminus of al-Mu’izz Street, it shares this distinction with two other surviving gates: Bab al-Nasr (Victory Gate) to the north and Bab Zuwayla (Gate of Zuwayla) to the south.
Originally constructed during the Fatimid era in the 10th century, Bab al-Futuh was later rebuilt into its current form in the late 11th century.
Cairo’s founder, the Fatimid general Jawhar, surrounded the city with brick walls and gates in 969 AD. Subsequently, during the reign of Caliph al-Mustansir, vizier and army commander Badr al-Gamali meticulously reconstructed the city walls and gates in stone.
This transformation culminated in the completion of Bab al-Futuh in 1087 AD, an endeavor that earned it the name it carries today.
This imposing gate, measuring 22 meters in height and 23 meters in width, boasts a formidable defensive design. Its entrance is flanked by two towering round-shaped structures.
Exquisite stonework adorns the gate, exhibiting craftsmanship of the highest quality. Notably, the gate’s outer façade features a splayed arch adorned with intricate stone-carved patterns, including lozenges with rosette and cross motifs.
The overhanging section above the entrance projects outward and is supported by stone brackets, some of which are adorned with the symbol of Mars from the zodiac.
Inside Bab al-Futuh, visitors are greeted by a shallow semi-spherical dome and a vestibule with Byzantine-inspired pendentives. Despite the absence of inscriptions on the gate’s façade, its historical and architectural significance is unmistakable, making it a cherished relic of Cairo’s rich heritage.
Bab al-Nasr, also known as the “Gate of Victory,” stands as one of Cairo’s historic gems, preserving the rich heritage of the city. Its construction dates back to the year 1087 AD (480 AH) during the rule of Badr al-Jamali, a prominent Fatimid vizier.
This fortified gate, strategically located at the northern end of Shari’a al-Gamaliya in Cairo’s old city, is a testament to both architectural brilliance and military defense.
The gate’s design was meticulously crafted for protection, with arrow slits and projecting towers allowing defenders to ward off invaders efficiently. Inside its stout walls, guard rooms and living quarters were connected by vaulted passages. Notably, the gate features decorative shields on the towers, symbolizing the city’s triumphant defense against potential threats.
A lengthy Arabic inscription adorns the facade, honoring Badr al-Jamali and his caliph, al-Mustansir, while also detailing the gate’s construction date. This inscription serves as a historical record of the gate’s significance in safeguarding the city.
The rectangular inscription panel above the arch proudly proclaims the Fatimid belief in Muhammad as a prophet and Ali as an imam, reflecting the religious and cultural context of the era.
Bab al-Nasr, with its rich history and architectural grandeur, continues to stand as a symbol of Cairo’s resilience and enduring cultural heritage.
Bab Zuweila, also known as Bab Zuwayla, stands as a testament to Cairo’s rich history and its enduring architectural marvels. As one of the three remaining gates in the Old City of Cairo, it holds a unique place in the city’s heritage.
This gate, dating back to the 11th and 12th centuries during the Fatimid era, is a prominent landmark and an important historical site.
The name “Bab Zuweila” originates from its strategic location as the Western Gate of the city, providing a trade route for overland travelers to the Fezzan region. Its twin towers, which can be reached via a steep climb, once served as lookout points to scout for potential threats in the surrounding countryside.
In modern times, they offer panoramic views of Old Cairo, allowing visitors to connect with the city’s history.
Bab Zuweila’s platform has witnessed significant historical events, from executions to the observation of the annual hajj pilgrimage to Mecca by the Sultan. It was even used to display the severed heads of criminals, a practice that persisted until the early 19th century.
Adjacent to Bab Zuweila lies the Mosque of Sultan al-Muayyad, built on the site of a former dungeon by Shaykh al-Mahmudi, who later became Sultan. This mosque stands as a testament to his commitment to fulfill a vow made during his imprisonment.
Over the centuries, Bab Zuweila has undergone various changes and adaptations, serving as a visual record of its rich history. Excavations in the area have unearthed layers of history, revealing insights into its original construction and the modifications made over time.
Bab Zuweila remains a cherished symbol of Cairo’s enduring legacy, where history, architecture, and culture converge to tell the story of this ancient city.
Bab al-Barqiyya, once a significant eastern gate in the historic city walls of Cairo, has a rich history and an intriguing architectural design. Originally constructed during the Fatimid era by the vizier Badr al-Gamali, it underwent significant rebuilding and fortification under the ambitious project initiated by Salah ad-Din (Saladin) in the 12th to 13th centuries.
This grand endeavor included the construction of the famous Citadel of Cairo and a lengthy protective wall spanning 20 kilometers, aimed at safeguarding both Cairo and Fustat.
As one of the main eastern entrances to the city, Bab al-Barqiyya played a crucial role in its defense. Beyond its walls, there was initially a desert area used for equestrian games during the Mamluk era, later becoming the site of the Northern Cemetery during the Burji Mamluk period.
However, as the city expanded and the region grew more secure, the defensive significance of Bab al-Barqiyya waned. Eventually, it fell into disuse, and the city’s inhabitants constructed new structures over and around it. Over time, the once-potent gate was buried beneath layers of debris.
In the early 2000s, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture embarked on a transformative project, converting the rubbish-covered area east of the historic city into the beautiful Al-Azhar Park, which opened in 2005. During this process, the eastern Ayyubid city walls, including Bab al-Barqiyya, were carefully excavated and restored.
Today, this gate, made of stone and featuring a complex “bent entrance” design, can be admired on the western edge of Al-Azhar Park, offering a glimpse into Cairo’s historical past and architectural ingenuity.
Khan el-Khalili, an iconic bazaar and souq nestled in the heart of historic Cairo, is a living testament to the city’s rich cultural and commercial history. Dating back to the Mamluk era, this vibrant marketplace has evolved into one of Cairo’s foremost attractions, drawing both tourists and locals.
It also serves as a hub for traditional craftsmanship and souvenir production, housing numerous workshops and artisans.
Originally, Khan el-Khalili referred to a single building within the area, but today it encompasses the entire shopping district. Its historical roots trace back to the Fatimid Caliphate’s foundation of Cairo in 969 CE. Initially, the city was reserved for the ruling elite, but the first attempts to open it to merchants and commoners occurred later in the Fatimid era.
Under Sultan Saladin’s rule in the late 12th century, Cairo underwent a transformation, shifting from an exclusive palace-city to a bustling economic center open to all. This shift accelerated Cairo’s ascendance, overtaking the declining port city of Fustat as Egypt’s economic heart.
The main thoroughfare, the Qasaba (now al-Muizz Street), became the central axis for economic activities, with souqs and commercial establishments thriving along its route. These markets were sponsored by sultans and elites, contributing to the growth of the city’s commercial zone.
During the Mamluk period, Khan el-Khalili took its present form, with stone khans and wikalas offering spaces for merchants to live and store their goods. The area’s development also benefited from the proliferation of waqf institutions, which funded religious and civic establishments through commercial revenues.
In the early 16th century, Sultan al-Ghuri played a pivotal role in modifying the district, leading to significant demolitions and new constructions. His legacy includes the Suq al-Nabulsi, ornate stone gates, and the Wikala al-Qutn. The area became synonymous with Turkish merchants during the Ottoman period.
Over time, Khan el-Khalili continued to evolve, with redevelopments in the 19th and 20th centuries adapting to changing urban dynamics. Today, this bustling market caters to tourists and locals alike, offering souvenirs, antiques, jewelry, and traditional crafts. Coffeehouses, like El Fishawi’s established in 1773, dot the area, preserving a sense of tradition.
Khan el-Khalili stands as a living testament to Cairo’s dynamic history, showcasing its transformation from a palace-city to a thriving economic center, all while preserving the charm and vitality of its bustling bazaars and winding alleys.
The Qasaba of Radwan Bey
The Qasaba of Radwan Bey, situated in Cairo, is a historic souq and covered market, located just south of the Bab Zuweila gate, outside the city’s historic walls.
Completed in 1650 CE, it stands as the sole surviving example of a covered market street in Cairo. This market, also known as the Street of the Tentmakers or al-Khayamiya, is famous for the sale of decorative textiles known as khayamiya.
Radwan Bey, a prominent Mamluk Bey who held a powerful position in Egypt from 1631 to 1656 CE, including overseeing the pilgrimage to Mecca, commissioned the construction of this market. The project was part of the 17th-century urbanization efforts to develop Cairo’s southern districts between Bab Zuweila and the Citadel.
Radwan Bey’s revitalization of the area, previously occupied by tanneries, also included a wikala (caravanserai), a rab’ (rental apartment building), a zawiya, a sabil (public water dispensary), two minor mosques, and his own palace, forming a complex of interconnected elements.
This location was strategically chosen, extending the main commercial axis of Cairo further south beyond Bab Zuweila along the historic north–south avenue.
Over time, various elements of Radwan Bey’s original complex have disappeared or been built over, but the covered market remains remarkably preserved. Restoration work was conducted between 2002 and 2004 to restore its street facades.
The covered market, originally housing shoemakers in Radwan Bey’s era, is now known as al-Khayamiya or Souq al-Khayamiya, dedicated to the sale of khayamiya textiles, a traditional decorative appliqué textile used for tentmaking.
This impressive complex spans approximately 150 meters along the main street, featuring a wooden roof with skylights covering about 50 meters of the street. The ground level comprises stone construction with shop spaces, while the upper level, supported by thick wooden corbels, once served as apartments.
Fragments of Radwan’s mansion, including a stone portal, mashrabiya windows, and decorative marble, remain at the southern end of the covered market.
Sabil-Kuttab of Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda
The Sabil-Kuttab of Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda stands as a remarkable historical monument nestled in Cairo’s historic district. Commissioned in 1744 by Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda, a prominent local official and patron of architecture, this structure is a quintessential example of Egyptian architectural excellence.
This historic gem, located on the iconic Al-Muizz Street, is a multifaceted complex comprising a sabil (a public fountain), a kuttab (an elementary Quran school), and an adjoining residential wing. Its architectural design and purpose offer a glimpse into the rich history of Cairo during the Mamluk and Ottoman eras.
Sabil-Kuttab of Katkhuda is not only a testament to Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda’s contributions but also a reflection of the cultural and social fabric of its time.
Sabils, like the one within this monument, provided free fresh water to passers-by, embodying the spirit of generosity prevalent during that era. Kuttabs, simple elementary schools for children, played a vital role in education in old Islamic Egypt.
Architecturally, the Sabil-Kuttab showcases the enduring elegance of Mamluk Egyptian style. Its three free-standing sides maximize visibility on Al-Muizz Street, emphasizing its importance as a focal point. The southern section houses the sabil and kuttab, while the northern part serves as living apartments today.
The building’s facade boasts a harmonious blend of grey and white stones adorned with marble reliefs and ornate tiles, capturing the artistic essence of the period. The mashrabeyya windows, a hallmark of Islamic Cairo’s architecture, grace the structure with intricate designs.
Inside, the sabil room, where fresh water was distributed to passers-by, features Quranic verses about “Ahl Al-Kahf” adorning the entrance. The kuttab, on the second floor, is supported by five marbled columns and a beautifully painted roof. Wooden mashrabeyya windows, carved and painted doors, and cupboards add to the interior’s allure.
Situated at the confluence of Al-Muizz Street’s two branches, the Sabil-Kuttab stands as a visual focal point, captivating those approaching from the Bayn al-Qasrayn area. Its symmetry, intricate design, and historical significance make it a testament to Cairo’s enduring architectural and cultural heritage.
Bayt Al-Suhaymi, also known as the House of Suhaymi, stands as a remarkable testament to traditional Egyptian Islamic architecture. Located in the heart of Cairo, this historic house and museum trace their origins to 1648 when constructed by Abdel Wahab el Tablawy along Darb al-Asfar in Islamic Cairo.
Initially established by Sheikh Abdul Wahab Al-Tablawi, it evolved into an iconic symbol of Arabian grandeur.
Structured around a central sahn with a serene garden adorned with lush plants and palm trees, the house’s exquisite mashrabiya windows offer captivating views. Notably, the original marble flooring, wooden furnishings, and ornate ceiling decor have been impeccably preserved, even after undergoing restoration following the 1992 earthquake.
Bayt Al-Suhaymi embodies traditional Arab architecture with a Cairene twist. The ground floor, known as Salamlek, was designed for male guests, featuring a splendid hall with two iwans adorned with verses from Nahj al-Burda and intricately detailed wooden ceilings.
The marine section of the house is larger and more opulent, housing a gold marble water basin and a candlestick-shaped fountain. Exquisite mashrabiya windows and intricate wooden cabinets adorn the majlis.
The first floor replicates the ground floor’s family rooms but with numerous windows providing courtyard and street views. Notably, the house includes a traditional bathroom with white marble interiors, a domed ceiling featuring colored glass, and a heating stove.
Bayt Al-Suhaymi boasts two courtyards, one serving as a picturesque garden with a wooden bench and olive and sidra trees. The back courtyard features a water trough, irrigation canal, and animal-powered mill, used for serving.
Restored with precision and funded by the Arab Fund for Economic Development, the house now serves as an open museum of Islamic architectural arts and a hub for artistic creativity, hosting folklore groups, workshops, and performances to preserve and promote Egypt’s rich cultural heritage.
The Salihiyya Madrasa
The Salihiyya Madrasa, also known as the Madrasa and Mausoleum of as-Salih Najm ad-Din Ayyub, stands as a historical testament to Islamic scholarship and architectural ingenuity in Cairo.
Founded in 1242 by Ayyub sultan As-Salih Ayyub during the Ayyubid dynasty’s rule, this complex played a pivotal role in religious education during the 13th and 14th centuries CE.
The madrasa, or religious college, broke new ground by becoming the first institution in Cairo to teach all four Sunni Islamic madhabs, or schools of law.
Its architectural layout featured two parallel wings, with the northern wing dedicated to the Shafi’i and Maliki denominations and the southern wing to the Hanafi and Hanbali denominations. This design encouraged diverse religious teachings and fostered the development of Islamic jurisprudence.
Adjacent to the madrasa, Shajar al-Durr, the widow of as-Salih Ayyub, commissioned the construction of a mausoleum for her late husband in 1249. This tradition of burying the patron within the institution they founded became a prominent feature of medieval Islamic culture.
Architecturally, the Salihiyya Madrasa showcased a Persian-inspired plan, featuring open inner courts and iwans, open vaulted halls for teaching. Although many of its parts have vanished over time, it remains a significant architectural relic.
The minaret of the madrasa, known as a “mabkhara” or incense burner, breaks from tradition by being positioned directly over the entrance and boasts an intricate design with ribbed helmet domes and muqarnas decorations.
Today, while only parts of the northern wing and the minaret are visible, the Salihiyya Madrasa serves as a reminder of the rich history of Islamic scholarship and architectural innovation in Cairo.
The Wikala of Sultan Qaytbay
The Wikala of Sultan Qaytbay, a remarkable architectural gem in Islamic Cairo, stands as a testament to the grandeur of Mamluk architecture. Constructed in 1481 CE by Sultan al-Ashraf Abu al-Nasr Qaitbay, it served as an urban caravanserai and rab, an apartment complex, reflecting the multifunctional design typical of the late Burji Mamluk period.
Situated adjacent to the historic Bab al-Nasr, a monumental 11th-century fortified gate in Cairo’s ancient walls, the wikala occupied a strategic location at one of the city’s main entrances.
Sultan Qaytbay, a prolific patron of Mamluk architecture during a relatively prosperous period, commissioned this wikala to support commerce and accommodate travelers.
The wikala’s street facade features a monumental stone portal adorned with typical Qaytbay-era ornamentation, such as ablaq masonry and muqarnas carvings. The ground level of the building includes shop spaces, a reflection of its original commercial function.
Upper floors, though partly in ruins, once boasted mashrabiyyas, wooden screens characterizing the living spaces.
Beyond the impressive portal lies a courtyard that dominates the interior layout. The ground floor housed storage rooms for merchants and their animals, while the upper levels provided residential quarters.
This arrangement allowed the building to generate revenue through rented apartments, contributing to its maintenance and charitable foundations. Each apartment spanned two levels, with upper rooms overlooking a reception area on the level below, providing residents with views of the bustling street outside.
Though it has seen various uses over the centuries, including its current tenement status, the Wikala of Sultan Qaytbay continues to captivate visitors with its historical significance and architectural allure. Undergoing restoration by the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities, it stands as a window into the thriving commercial and cultural history of Cairo’s Islamic quarter.
The Mausoleum of Tarabay al-Sharifi
The Mausoleum of Tarabay al-Sharifi stands as a testament to the late Mamluk era’s architectural prowess and cultural significance.
This remarkable funerary complex, constructed in 1503–1504, commemorates the life of Amir Tarabay al-Sharifi and serves as a multifunctional space within Cairo’s historic Bab al-Wazir Cemetery, adjacent to the Darb al-Ahmar district.
Amir Tarabay’s history is emblematic of the Mamluk tradition, having been a slave purchased by Sultan Qaytbay who later rose to prominence as the leader of the Mamluks during Sultan al-Ghuri’s reign (1501–1516).
This complex not only honors his memory but also encapsulates the late Mamluk architectural style, blending ornate sophistication with practical functionality.
The Mausoleum of Tarabay al-Sharifi encompasses more than just a tomb. It also includes a sabil (a public water dispensary) and kuttab (a primary school), reflecting its multifaceted purpose within the community.
An adjacent gate connects the Darb al-Ahmar district to the cemetery, ensuring accessibility and convenience for visitors.
Furthermore, the site’s historical significance extends to the ribat and mausoleum of Azdumur, another Mamluk purchased by Qaytbay, whose relationship with Tarabay remains unclear.
The Aga Khan Trust for Culture undertook a comprehensive restoration effort between 2006 and 2009, preserving this architectural masterpiece and its cultural heritage.
The Hammam of Sultan Inal
The Hammam of Sultan Inal, nestled in the heart of Cairo’s historic center on al-Mu’izz Street, is a testament to the grandeur of Islamic architecture from the Mamluk period. Commissioned by Sultan Inal in 1456, during the Circassian Mamluk era, it stands as a remarkable example of the city’s rich heritage.
This hammam is a rare gem, one of the few exceptionally preserved public bathhouses among the nearly 80 that once dotted Cairo’s landscape in the 19th century. Its recent comprehensive restoration has transformed it into a historic monument, welcoming visitors to explore its architectural splendor.
The facade of the hammam, facing al-Mu’izz Street, conceals its inner sanctum through a discreet, broken corridor, ensuring the privacy of its patrons. The reception hall, with a square layout, boasts a wooden-beamed ceiling adorned with a central rattle and an array of twenty-eight windows that allow soft, diffused light to grace the space.
Beyond the reception hall lies a dressing room, featuring modern tile flooring and a cross vault with a central stone fountain. The main bathing area reveals a square bathtub beneath a simple shallow dome, punctuated by small ventilation holes, offering a glimpse into the traditional rituals and customs of the era.
As a witness to over 700 years of history, the Hammam of Sultan Inal stands as a symbol of Islamic architectural brilliance and the enduring social traditions of the Egyptian people, embodying both the elegance of its design and the tales of its past.
The Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay
The Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay, situated in the historic districts of Cairo, is a remarkable example of Mamluk-era charitable foundations. Commissioned in 1479 by Sultan al-Ashraf Qaytbay, this architectural gem embodies the spirit of providing assistance and education to the community.
This unique building combines two essential functions within its structure. The ground floor houses a sabil, a water distribution kiosk, fulfilling the Islamic duty of providing water to those in need. Below the edifice, an underground cistern stores the water for this purpose.
Notably, the Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay was the first standalone sabil-kuttab in Cairo, setting a precedent for similar structures that would become common during the Ottoman period.
The upper floors of the building serve as a kuttab, a primary school where children from modest backgrounds receive instruction in the Quran. This dual-purpose facility highlights the importance of both material and intellectual support for the community.
Architecturally, the Sabil-Kuttab captivates with its intricate design. Its façades are adorned with a rich display of stone and marble, featuring a lofty portal crowned by a lobed arch. The upper kuttab floor boasts expansive wooden windows, welcoming ample natural light.
Today, this historic site stands as a testament to Sultan Qaytbay’s commitment to his people, offering a glimpse into the benevolent practices and architectural sophistication of Mamluk Cairo, while forming an integral part of the UNESCO-listed Historic Cairo.
The Sultaniyya Mausoleum
The Sultaniyya Mausoleum, nestled within the Southern Cemetery of the Qarafa in Cairo, stands as a testament to Mamluk-era architectural ingenuity and historical significance. Believed to have been constructed in the 1350s, this funerary complex is dedicated to the mother of Sultan Hassan, Sultan an-Nasir Hassan’s mother, who passed away when he was young. It is a tribute to her memory and his upbringing by a stepmother.
Although the original waqf documents for the Sultaniyya Mausoleum have not survived, it was indirectly identified through a neighboring Ottoman-era mosque’s waqf document, which mentioned a mausoleum dedicated to Sultan Hassan’s mother.
This architectural masterpiece, with its distinctive stone domes and royal patronage, is thought to have been commissioned by Sultan Hassan during his reign.
The mausoleum complex’s most striking feature is its pair of stone domes, characterized by ribbed exteriors and bulbous profiles, resting atop towering cylindrical drums. These unique domes, with stone ribs ending in muqarnas cornices, showcase architectural influences from the Timurid era and possibly earlier Iranian structures.
Inside, the mausoleum chambers are adorned with stone mihrabs, symbolizing the direction of prayer, while pendentives in muqarnas style elegantly transition from the round domes to the square chambers. An impressive iwan, with inscriptions and another stone mihrab, likely served for prayers, facing a now-vanished courtyard.
The Sultaniyya Mausoleum, steeped in history and architectural finesse, remains a remarkable monument in Cairo’s City of the Dead, offering a glimpse into the grandeur of Mamluk-era Cairo.
The Wikala of Sultan Qansuh al-Ghuri
The Wikala of Sultan Qansuh al-Ghuri, situated in the heart of medieval Cairo, stands as a remarkable testament to Egypt’s commercial and architectural history. Built in 1504-1505 CE, this caravanserai, known as a “wikala,” served as a multifunctional urban center for merchants, traders, and residents alike.
As an urban caravanserai, the wikala provided lodging, storage, and trading spaces for merchants. It also likely housed customs offices to handle imported goods. Sultan Qansuh al-Ghuri initiated its construction as part of a larger complex that included his mausoleum, a khanqah (Sufi lodge), a sabil-kuttab (water dispensary and elementary school), and a mosque-madrasa.
The revenues generated by the wikala supported the operations of this religious and civic complex through a waqf, an Islamic charitable endowment.
The wikala, meticulously restored in 2004, comprises five stories surrounding a spacious rectangular courtyard. The lower two stories, built from stone, feature a portico with towering arches, likely used for storing livestock and merchandise on the ground floor and for merchant accommodations on the second floor.
Above the portico, three stories of brick construction contain a rab’, an apartment complex for low-income residents.
The northern street-facing facade, adorned with regular rows of windows and intricate mashrabiyas, showcases the wikala’s grandeur. Its entrance, a monumental portal with elaborate trilobed groin vaults, stone-carved muqarnas, marble mosaics, and alternating colored stone, exemplifies the building’s unique architectural splendor.
Today, the Wikala of Sultan Qansuh al-Ghuri continues to serve as a cultural hub, housing artisans’ workshops, local offices, and hosting events, including Sufi ceremonies, preserving its historical significance for modern visitors.
The Maristan of al-Mu’ayyad
The Maristan of al-Mu’ayyad, also known as Bimaristan al-Mu’ayyadi, is a historic hospital (bimaristan or maristan) located on the southern edge of Cairo, near the Citadel of Cairo and the former Bab al-Wazir gate. This impressive structure was commissioned by the Mamluk Sultan al-Mu’ayyad Sheikh and constructed between 1418 and 1420.
The maristan has a unique history that adds to its significance. It was built on the site of an unfinished madrasa-mausoleum that had been initiated by Sultan al-Ashraf Sha’ban in 1375 but remained incomplete at the time of his assassination in 1377.
The unfinished structure was eventually dismantled by Sultan Faraj ibn Barquq in 1411, and its materials were repurposed for various other buildings.
Sultan al-Mu’ayyad, a relatively humble and pious ruler, took over and chose this site for his maristan despite the existence of another large hospital as part of Sultan Qalawun’s complex further north.
Construction began in 1418 and was completed in 1420, but the building did not fulfill its intended function as a hospital due to the lack of proper instructions outlined in its waqf (charitable trust) documents. Instead, it briefly served as a guesthouse for Iranian residents and later was converted into a Friday mosque under Sultan al-Ashraf Barsbay in 1422.
Over the years, the maristan fell into disuse and ruin, with only its facade and the walls of its main hall remaining. Recent restoration efforts have revitalized this magnificent building, making it one of the most impressive structures in historic Cairo.
The facade boasts intricate ornamentation, including decorative chains, muqarnas vaults, and inscriptions in Arabic. Inside, a central courtyard is surrounded by iwans, and remnants of the original layout, including a central basin, wall fountains, a pharmacy, and a kitchen, provide glimpses into its historical function.
Wikala and Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay
The Wikala and Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay, nestled within the historic heart of Islamic Cairo, stand as a testament to the architectural and philanthropic legacy of the Mamluk sultan Al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Qaitbay. This remarkable complex, constructed in 1477 CE, serves as a multifaceted hub of community services and commerce.
At its core, the complex comprises an urban caravanserai (wikala), designed to accommodate traveling merchants and their goods, and a water dispensary (sabil) that generously quenched the thirst of Cairo’s residents.
The provision of water was a noble act in a city parched by its arid climate and distant from the Nile. Alongside these amenities, a watering trough for animals and a school (kuttab) were essential components of this philanthropic endeavor.
Sultan Qaytbay’s benevolent act is mirrored in the elaborate architectural details adorning the complex. Intricately designed facades, ornate entry portals, and muqarnas-adorned arches showcase the artistry of the period. The kuttab, once a center for Quranic education, continues to resonate with the echoes of Mamluk piety.
While the passage of time has taken its toll on the structure, the Wikala and Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay remain standing, bearing witness to centuries of history, charity, and architectural brilliance in the heart of Cairo.
The Madrasa of Uljay al-Yusufi
The Madrasa of Uljay al-Yusufi, an architectural gem nestled between the historic Bab Zuwayla and the Cairo Citadel, stands as a testament to the Mamluk era’s rich heritage.
Founded during the late 14th century by Amir Uljay al-Yusufi, this institution has not only served as a center of learning but also as an embodiment of the Mamluk’s piety and artistic finesse.
Amir Uljay al-Yusufi’s rise to prominence was closely intertwined with his marriage to Khawand Baraka, a member of the royal family, which bestowed him with influence and power. It was in 1372-73 that he ordered the construction of this blessed madrasa, now a historical treasure trove.
Architecturally, the complex boasts an ornate facade adorned with inscriptions, marble slabs, and a beautifully designed main door.
The mosque and school are centered around a large open courtyard, with four iwans, showcasing exquisite craftsmanship and architectural precision. The dome, ribbed with spiral detailing, is a unique feature that reflects the innovation of its time.
As a hub of religious and intellectual exploration, the Madrasa of Uljay al-Yusufi has left an indelible mark on the historical landscape of Cairo, serving as a window into the Mamluk dynasty’s legacy of knowledge and artistry.
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