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Electronics And Communications Blog
Electronics is the field of science and engineering, which deals with electron devices and their utilization.
Non Fungible Tokens (NFT)
2024-01-03 03:29
Non Fungible Tokens (NFTs)Suppose a person decides to buy a digital artwork of great value. He wants the creation to be his only when he pays for it. That is, it should not have fake copies… Read More
Types Of Reality In Metaverse Technology
2023-12-16 02:44
Types of Reality in Metaverse TechnologyVirtual Reality Virtual reality is an imaginary world that can be experienced like the real world. Here, with the help of software, it seems that the… Read More
Blockchain Technology
2023-12-10 02:48
Blockchain TechnologyA database is information that is collected and stored in digital form. A block chain is a classified database shared over a network of computers. There is a difference… Read More
Metaverse Technology
2023-12-03 05:24
Metaverse TechnologyMetaverse is the combination of two words, meta and universe. The Greek word 'meta' means 'after' or 'beyond'. And the universe means the environment in which we live. So… Read More
Abrasive (Invention)
2023-08-31 03:19
Invention of AbrasiveAbrasives as a class are simply hard substances used to rub-nard material to form softer substances. It is believed that sand was used for polishing weapons made of ston… Read More
ABO Blood Groups (Discovery)
2023-08-31 03:07
Discovery of ABO Blood GroupsThe Austrian - born American Biologist Karl Landsteiner in 1901 was the first to classify human blood group system - ABO blood groups. The method of classif… Read More
Abaca (Discovery)
2023-08-31 02:56
Discovery of AbacaIt is a plant grown in Borneo, Philippines and Sumatra for its fibre. The plant grows about 6 metres high and has large oblong leaves. The leaves grow from the trunk of the… Read More
A Brief History Of Abacus
2023-08-29 14:54
A brief history of AbacusA calculating device consisting of balls strung on wires or rods set in a frame. It is probably of Babylonian origin but its use declined in Europe with the introduc… Read More
Spectrometer Experiment Viva Questions
2023-05-30 10:01
Spectrometer Experiment Viva Questions with Answers(i) Why is a spectrometer so called?Ans: It is an instrument to study the spectra of different sources of light.(ii) What is meant by monoc… Read More
Inclined Plane Viva Questions
2023-04-20 09:19
Inclined Plane Viva Questions with Answers1. What do you understand by an inclined plane? Ans: It is a smooth plane hinged to the base, so that it can be set at any desired angle. 2. Why d… Read More
Sonometer Viva Questions And Answers
2023-04-17 02:47
Sonometer Practical Viva Questions and Answers(i) Does sound travel in vaccum? Ans: No, A material medium is needed for its propagation (ii) What are the frequency limits of audibility? A… Read More
2023-03-26 10:17
Important Parameters in Magnetic Recording: The parameters to be considered in designing a good quality magnetic recording system are: (i) Recorded Wavelength:It is the length of tape m… Read More
Potentiometer Viva Questions With Answers
2023-01-04 11:48
Potentiometer Experiment Viva Questions with Answers (i) What is a potentiometer? Ans: It is an instrument to measure potential difference across two points accurately (ii) What is its princ… Read More
Meter Bridge Viva Questions With Answers
2022-12-29 12:43
Viva Questions and Answers for Meter Bridge Experiment (i) Why is Wheatstone Bridge so called? Ans: The principle was discovered by Sir Charles Wheatstone (ii) What is a Metre Bridge. Why is… Read More
Ohm's Law Viva Questions And Answers
2022-12-19 14:46
Ohm's Law Experiment Viva Questions and Answers(i) State Ohm's law Ans: At constant temperature the ratio of the potential difference between the end of a conductor to the current through it… Read More
Boyles Law Viva Questions
2022-12-11 11:53
Boyles Law Viva Questions and Answers (i) What is the S.I. unit of pressure? Ans: N.m-2 (ii) Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 0.76 m of mercury. What is the pressure in N.m-2? Density of… Read More
Post Office Box Experiment Viva Questions
2022-12-07 03:30
Post Office Box Experiment Viva Questions with Answers 1. What is Post Office Box?Post Office Box is an instrument based on Wheatstone's bridge principle.2. Why is Post Office Box so called?… Read More
Moment Bar Experiment
2022-12-02 13:11
Moment Bar Experiment Aim To find the mass of a body using a metre scale Apparatus A metre scale, slotted weights, given body etc Principle By principle of moments, M x AG = W x BG (see figu… Read More
Friction Experiment Viva Questions
2022-11-15 03:50
Coefficient of Friction Experiment Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is meant by friction? Friction is an opposing force that comes into effect when a body moves or even tries to moves over… Read More
Zener Diode Experiment Viva Questions
2022-11-13 03:22
Zener Diode Experiment Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is a Zener diode? A junction diode which can operate in the reverse breakdown voltage region is called a Zener diode. 2. Is Ohm's la… Read More
Young's Modulus Experiment Viva Questions
2022-11-09 05:32
Viva Questions on Young's Modulus Experiment1. What is meant by stress? Ans: Stress is defined as the restoring force that is acting per unit area of a body. 2. What is meant by strain? Ans:… Read More
Helical Spring Experiment Viva Questions
2022-11-07 06:35
Helical Spring Experiment Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is the principle of a spring?Hooke's law2. Define Hooke's law.According to Hooke's law, within elastic limit, stress is directly… Read More
Simple Pendulum Viva Questions And Answers
2022-11-03 06:08
Simple Pendulum Viva Questions and Answers(i) Who invented simple pendulum? Ans: Galileo (ii) Is `g' a vector quantity? Ans: yes (iii) What is the effective length of a simple pendulum? Ans:… Read More
Viscosity Viva Questions And Answers
2022-10-31 10:52
The Viscosity Viva Questions and Answers (i) Define the coefficient of viscosity. Ans: It is the tangential force necessary to keep a unit velocity gradient amid two layers each of unit area… Read More
Surface Tension Viva Questions And Answers
2022-10-29 12:18
The surface tension (capillary rise) experiment Viva Questions and Answers(i) Define surface tensionAns: It is defined as the force acting tangential to the liquid surface and perpendic… Read More
Common Balance Viva Questions
2022-10-26 08:39
The Common Balance Viva Questions(i) What is the principle of a physical balance? Ans: It is form of lever of first order and works on the principle of moments. (ii) What are the requis… Read More
Screw Gauge Viva Questions
2022-06-13 00:21
Screw Gauge Viva Questions and Answers1. Name the instrument used for measuring the thickness of a piece of paper. Screw gauge 2. What is meant by pitch of a screw gauge? It is the distance… Read More
Vernier Caliper Viva Questions
2022-06-11 04:16
Vernier Calipers Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is vernier? Why is it so named? Vernier is a device for measuring small lengths accurately, correct upto a fraction of a millimeter. It is… Read More
2022-06-04 04:17
1. Discuss in detail about Formatting? In digital communication, the first and most important signal processing step is formatting. Formatting converts source data into bits, ensuring that t… Read More
2022-05-29 03:42
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Viva questions1. Mention channl noise? The combined effect of thermal noise, interference from other users, and interference from circuit switching transients are… Read More
2022-05-24 01:02
VIDEO ENGINEERING VIVA QUESTIONS VIDEO SYSTEMS 1. What do you know about TV? The term "television" refers to the ability to observe things from distance. Its purpose is to extend the sense… Read More
2022-05-22 03:03
AUDIO ENGINEERING VIVA QUESTIONS AUDIO SYSTEMS 1. What do you understand about the Acoustic Principle. The acoustic study is associated with changes in sound waves. Microphones are a type o… Read More
Meter Bridge And Potentiometer
2022-04-26 04:31
METRE BRIDGE It is a simple form of Wheatstone’s bridge used to measure the resistance of a resistor. Circuit Diagram of the apparatus Procedure: To find the resistance of a conduct… Read More
Current Electricity Introduction
2022-04-26 04:31
INTRODUCTION - CURRENT ELECTRICITY The electric current is the flow of electric charges, the charge carriers. In solid conductors, the charge carriers are conduction electrons (free electron… Read More
Convolutional Encoder Example
2022-04-13 02:13
Convolutional Encoder Example Determine the following for the convolutional encoder shown in Figure. a) Code rate b) Constraint length c) Code dimension d) Graphically represent the encoder… Read More
Cyclic Redundancy Check Code
2022-03-22 14:23
Cyclic Redundancy Check Code (CRC) Error detection is the main specialty of cyclic codes. They can be designed to identify a wide range of possible problems. Encoding and error-detection cir… Read More
2022-03-12 10:27
Binary Cyclic Codes A subtype of linear block codes is binary cyclic codes. They have a lot of important features. Errors caused by bursts of noise that influence multiple consecutive bits c… Read More
Hamming Codes In Digital Communication
2022-02-28 02:25
HAMMING CODES IN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION (n, k) linear block codes are Hamming codes. They can be produced in a systematic or non-systematic manner. A systematic form of Hamming codes The foll… Read More
Principles Of Linear Block Codes
2022-02-24 14:18
LINEAR BLOCK CODES The (n, k) notation describes a family of parity check codes known as block codes. Forward error correction codes are implemented using block codes. Linear Block Codes are… Read More
Discrete Memoryless Channel
2022-02-15 13:36
DISCRETE MEMORYLESS CHANNEL IN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION The channel is the propagation medium or electromagnetic route that connects the transmitter and receiver. By modeling a channel as a sta… Read More
Convolutional Codes Lecture Notes
2022-02-12 12:20
CONVOLUTIONAL CODES The encoder generates an n-bit codeword from a k-bit message block in block coding. As a result, code words are generated one at a time. As a result, to put the message b… Read More
2022-02-04 05:09
Types of Errors in Data Communication The codewords transmitted across the channel are impacted differently depending on the type of noise. As a result, it's possible that bit 0 sent will be… Read More
Source Coding And Channel Coding Techniques
2022-02-02 10:29
Source Coding and Channel Coding Techniques in Digital Communication Higher transmission rates and excellent dependability are two major desirable aspects in any digital communication system… Read More
Error Control Coding Lecture Notes
2022-01-28 03:53
ERROR CONTROL CODING METHODS LECTURE NOTES To accomplish error detection and correction at the receiver, error control coding approaches entail the systematic insertion of redundant bits to… Read More
Spread Spectrum Questions And Answers
2022-01-26 13:05
Spread Spectrum Questions And Answers 1. What is spread spectrum communication, and how does it work? If a system meets all of the above criteria, it is classified as a spread spectrum commu… Read More
CDMA - Digital Cellular System
2022-01-07 12:45
CDMA - DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEM The Digital cellular CDMA system is the main application of the spread spectrum technique. This CDMA digital cellular technology based on Direct Sequence… Read More
Synchronization In Spread Spectrum Systems
2022-01-03 05:34
Synchronization in Spread Spectrum Systems Need for Synchronization Synchronization is the process of ensuring that the locally produced carrier at the receiver is in frequency and phase syn… Read More
Fast Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
2021-12-28 05:19
Fast Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Block Diagram: Fast-hopped signals occur in the FH system when there are multiple hops per symbol. As a result, the hop rate Rh is an integer mult… Read More
Slow Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
2021-12-24 09:23
Slow Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum: We have a slow-hopped signal in the FH system when the hopping is done at the symbol rate. As a result, the symbol rate Rs of the MFSK signal is an in… Read More
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Systems
2021-12-16 13:09
FREQUENCY-HOPPING SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEMS (FH-SS) The use of a PN sequence to modulate a phase shift keyed signal allows immediate spreading of the transmission bandwidth in Direct sequence… Read More
Pseudo Noise Sequence In Spread Spectrum
2021-12-07 14:06
PSEUDO NOISE SEQUENCE IN SPREAD SPECTRUM A coded sequence of 1s and 0s with specific autocorrelation properties is known as a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence. Both the transmitter and receiver ar… Read More
Spread Spectrum Communication System
2021-11-27 13:44
SPREAD SPECTRUM COMMUNICATION SYSTEM The two most important design factors in any digital communication system are: 1) effective channel bandwidth utilization and 2) transmission power cons… Read More
Baseband Transmission System
2021-11-24 10:01
BASEBAND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM In digital communication, formatting is the first and most important signal processing step. Formatting ensures that the message or source signal may be processe… Read More
Types Of Digital Modulation Techniques
2021-11-21 01:56
Digital Modulation TechniquesIn Baseband pulse transmission, the input data in baseband pulse transmission is represented by a discrete PAM signal (Line codes). At low frequencies, the baseb… Read More
Alloys Of Aluminium And Its Uses
2021-11-16 06:15
Alloys of Aluminium and its Properties and UsesAluminium is a very malleable and ductile metal with a soft white colour. It's melting and boiling points are 655°C and 2057°… Read More
Basic Digital Communication Transformations
2021-11-08 13:56
BASIC DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TRANSFORMATIONS The basic signal processing functions that may be considered as transformations are divided into nine categories. 1. Formatting and Source Coding:… Read More
2021-11-04 11:24
Types of Digital Communication Channels A communication channel is used in the physical layer to transmit data across a communication network. Additive noise is a typical issue in signal tra… Read More
2021-11-02 10:05
Block Diagram of Typical Digital Communication System The transmitter transmits a waveform from a finite set of possible waveforms over a finite period in a digital communication system. The… Read More
2021-11-01 13:19
COPPER VS ANNEALED COPPER PROPERTIES OF COPPER   Copper is a reddish metal that is very soft and yielding. It has a great resistance to decay and maybe soldered easily. Its tensile str… Read More
Satellite Multiple Access Techniques
2021-09-09 13:45
MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NOTES Mobile users share the wireless spectrum at the same time. The sharing might be based on frequency, time, or code. Wireless teleph… Read More
Electrostatic Loudspeaker Working
2021-09-06 08:55
Electrostatic Loudspeaker - Working and ConstructionAn electrostatic loudspeaker is a type of loudspeaker that generates sound by applying force to a membrane that is kept in an electrostati… Read More
Facsimile Communication System
2021-09-03 06:26
Facsimile Communication Systems In a communications system, it is necessary to send visual signals in addition to fundamental signals such as speech, music, or telegraph codes. The rece… Read More
GSM In Mobile Communication
2021-09-01 11:46
Digital Cellular System: Digital cellular systems are those which incorporate digital modulation techniques. Digital systems provide significant improvements in capacity and system performan… Read More
2021-08-30 03:28
TYPES OF TELEPHONE SYSTEM Telephone systems were primarily designed to deliver a human speech (voice). They are also utilized for data transmission. A modem is used to transfer data. The tel… Read More
Radar And Navigational Aids
2021-08-27 12:32
RADAR AND NAVIGATIONAL AIDS RADAR Radar is a device that uses radio waves to track distant objects. The main aim of radar is to determine: whether there are objects in the region to be searc… Read More
Direct Radiating And Horn Loudspeaker
2021-08-16 11:21
LOUDSPEAKER: An electro-acoustic transducer, or loudspeaker, is a device that transforms electrical signals into sound signals. In sound reproduction, loudspeakers are devices that transform… Read More
Scanning Principles Of Television
2021-07-25 01:53
SCANNING PRINCIPLES OF TELEVISION Scanning is a technique for converting the charge images created within a television camera tube into a variable electrical signal. The TV image is scanned… Read More
Compact Disc Recording System Block Diagram
2021-07-16 04:12
COMPACT DISC (CD) SYSTEM: A compact disc (CD) may hold a wide range of data. Compact disc signals are stored in a high-density digital format. As a result, the signals captured are a replica… Read More
Working Principle Of LED Display
2021-07-12 11:30
LED DISPLAY UNIT: While both types of TVs use LCD technology and feature flat-panel designs, LED TV is a more sophisticated form of LCD TV. LED TVs use LED backlighting to illuminate LCDs, m… Read More
Write Down Working Principle Of LCD Display
2021-07-10 11:05
LCD DISPLAY UNIT: Colour and monochrome liquid crystal displays (LCDs) of various sizes have been created for TV receivers. LCDs in video display devices are currently available in a variety… Read More
CCTV Simple Block Diagram With Explanation
2021-06-28 03:39
CCTV Block Diagram with Explanation Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is a system in which the circuit is closed and all of the elements are directly connected. We know that, in broadcast tel… Read More
What Is Handycam
2021-06-24 02:59
Handycam (Camcorder) The term camcorder refers to a portable device that records audio and video into a storage medium. The term camcorder refers to a device that combines the func… Read More
Block Diagram Of Cable TV Network
2021-06-15 03:04
 CABLE TELEVISION (CABLE TV): Cable television is a type of CCTV in which users get regular channel television signals over coaxial cables in exchange for a monthly fee. Master Antenna… Read More
Crystal Oscillators
2021-06-12 10:41
Crystal Oscillators Due to the variations in temperature, humidity, transistor, and circuit constants, etc. The frequency stability is usually poor in conventional radio frequency oscillato… Read More
Radio Frequency Bandwidth Of The Signal
2021-05-29 07:06
Radio Frequency Bandwidth of the Signal The frequency range (i.e., bandwidth) required for a given transmission is depend on the bandwidth occupied by the modulation signals itself. For exam… Read More
Single Sideband Amplitude Modulation
2021-05-23 07:40
Single Sideband Amplitude Modulation The general AM equation shows that when a carrier is amplitude-modulated by a single sine wave, the resulting signal consists of three frequencies &mdash&hell…Read More
AM Modulator Block Diagram
2021-05-16 10:50
AM Transmitter Block DiagramNote: Class C RF output amplifier is used in High Level Modulation. Class B RF linear power amplifier is used in Low Level Modulation. The general block diagram… Read More

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