Electronics And Communications Blog

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Electronics is the field of science and engineering, which deals with electron devices and their utilization.

Parameters In Magnetic Recording On Tape

2023-03-26 10:17
Important Parameters in Magnetic Recording: The parameters to be considered in designing a good quality magnetic recording system are: (i) Recorded Wavelength:It is the length of tape m… Read More

2023-01-04 11:48
Potentiometer Experiment Viva Questions with Answers (i) What is a potentiometer? Ans: It is an instrument to measure potential difference across two points accurately (ii) What is its princ… Read More

Meter Bridge Viva Questions With Answers

2022-12-29 12:43
Viva Questions and Answers for Meter Bridge Experiment (i) Why is Wheatstone Bridge so called? Ans: The principle was discovered by Sir Charles Wheatstone (ii) What is a Metre Bridge. Why is… Read More

Ohm's Law Viva Questions And Answers

2022-12-19 14:46
Ohm's Law Experiment Viva Questions and Answers(i) State Ohm's law Ans: At constant temperature the ratio of the potential difference between the end of a conductor to the current through it… Read More

Boyles Law Viva Questions

2022-12-11 11:53
Boyles Law Viva Questions and Answers (i) What is the S.I. unit of pressure? Ans: N.m-2 (ii) Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 0.76 m of mercury. What is the pressure in N.m-2? Density of… Read More

Post Office Box Experiment Viva Questions

2022-12-07 03:30
Post Office Box Experiment Viva Questions with Answers 1. What is Post Office Box?Post Office Box is an instrument based on Wheatstone's bridge principle.2. Why is Post Office Box so called?… Read More

Moment Bar Experiment

2022-12-02 13:11
Moment Bar Experiment Aim To find the mass of a body using a metre scale Apparatus A metre scale, slotted weights, given body etc Principle By principle of moments, M x AG = W x BG (see figu… Read More

Frequency Of AC Mains Using Sonometer Viva Questions

2022-11-28 05:19
Frequency of AC Mains using Sonometer Experiment Viva Questions with Answers 1. Which is more dangerous in use a.c. or d.c.? Why? Ans: For example, a 220V a.c has a peak value of 220 x &radi&hell…Read More

PN Junction Diode Viva Questions With Answers

2022-11-23 05:26
The PN Junction Diode Viva Questions with Answers(i) What is a pn junction?A PN-junction is said to be condition when an N-type material is combined together with a P-type material creating… Read More

Newton's Law Of Cooling Experiment Viva Questions

2022-11-19 03:21
Viva Questions on Newton's Law of Cooling Experiment 1. What is meant by internal energy? Ans: The sum of kinetic and potential energies of a body is called its internal energy. 2. Define te… Read More

Friction Experiment Viva Questions

2022-11-15 03:50
Coefficient of Friction Experiment Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is meant by friction? Friction is an opposing force that comes into effect when a body moves or even tries to moves over… Read More

Zener Diode Experiment Viva Questions

2022-11-13 03:22
Zener Diode Experiment Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is a Zener diode? A junction diode which can operate in the reverse breakdown voltage region is called a Zener diode. 2. Is Ohm's la… Read More

Young's Modulus Experiment Viva Questions

2022-11-09 05:32
Viva Questions on Young's Modulus Experiment1. What is meant by stress? Ans: Stress is defined as the restoring force that is acting per unit area of a body. 2. What is meant by strain? Ans:… Read More

Helical Spring Experiment Viva Questions

2022-11-07 06:35
Helical Spring Experiment Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is the principle of a spring?Hooke's law2. Define Hooke's law.According to Hooke's law, within elastic limit, stress is directly… Read More

Simple Pendulum Viva Questions And Answers

2022-11-03 06:08
Simple Pendulum Viva Questions and Answers(i) Who invented simple pendulum? Ans: Galileo (ii) Is `g' a vector quantity? Ans: yes (iii) What is the effective length of a simple pendulum? Ans:… Read More

2022-10-31 10:52
The Viscosity Viva Questions and Answers (i) Define the coefficient of viscosity. Ans: It is the tangential force necessary to keep a unit velocity gradient amid two layers each of unit area… Read More

Surface Tension Viva Questions And Answers

2022-10-29 12:18
The surface tension (capillary rise) experiment Viva Questions and Answers(i) Define surface tensionAns: It is defined as the force acting tangential to the liquid surface and perpendic… Read More

Common Balance Viva Questions

2022-10-26 08:39
The Common Balance Viva Questions(i) What is the principle of a physical balance? Ans: It is form of lever of first order and works on the principle of moments. (ii) What are the requis… Read More

2022-06-15 10:26

Screw Gauge Viva Questions

2022-06-13 00:21
Screw Gauge Viva Questions and Answers1. Name the instrument used for measuring the thickness of a piece of paper. Screw gauge 2. What is meant by pitch of a screw gauge? It is the distance… Read More

Vernier Caliper Viva Questions

2022-06-11 04:16
Vernier Calipers Viva Questions and Answers 1. What is vernier? Why is it so named? Vernier is a device for measuring small lengths accurately, correct upto a fraction of a millimeter. It is… Read More

Sampling Theorem Viva Questions And Answers

2022-06-04 04:17
1. Discuss in detail about Formatting? In digital communication, the first and most important signal processing step is formatting. Formatting converts source data into bits, ensuring that t… Read More

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Viva Questions

2022-05-29 03:42
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Viva questions1. Mention channl noise? The combined effect of thermal noise, interference from other users, and interference from circuit switching transients are… Read More

Video Engineering Viva Questions

2022-05-24 01:02
VIDEO ENGINEERING VIVA QUESTIONS VIDEO SYSTEMS 1. What do you know about TV? The term "television" refers to the ability to observe things from distance. Its purpose is to extend the sense… Read More

Audio Engineering Viva Questions

2022-05-22 03:03
AUDIO ENGINEERING VIVA QUESTIONS AUDIO SYSTEMS 1. What do you understand about the Acoustic Principle. The acoustic study is associated with changes in sound waves. Microphones are a type o… Read More

Meter Bridge And Potentiometer

2022-04-26 04:31
METRE BRIDGE It is a simple form of Wheatstone’s bridge used to measure the resistance of a resistor. Circuit Diagram of the apparatus Procedure: To find the resistance of a conduct… Read More

Wheatstone Bridge Principle And Its Applications

2022-04-26 04:31
Wheatstone Bridge WHEATSTONE'S PRINCIPLE The most widely accepted method of measuring resistance was developed in 1843 by Charles Wheatstone, who was considered as the first Professor of Phy… Read More

Current Electricity Introduction

2022-04-26 04:31
INTRODUCTION - CURRENT ELECTRICITY The electric current is the flow of electric charges, the charge carriers. In solid conductors, the charge carriers are conduction electrons (free electron… Read More

Convolutional Encoder Example

2022-04-13 02:13
Convolutional Encoder Example Determine the following for the convolutional encoder shown in Figure. a) Code rate b) Constraint length c) Code dimension d) Graphically represent the encoder… Read More

Cyclic Redundancy Check Code

2022-03-22 14:23
Cyclic Redundancy Check Code (CRC) Error detection is the main specialty of cyclic codes. They can be designed to identify a wide range of possible problems. Encoding and error-detection cir… Read More

Binary Cyclic Codes

2022-03-12 10:27
Binary Cyclic Codes A subtype of linear block codes is binary cyclic codes. They have a lot of important features. Errors caused by bursts of noise that influence multiple consecutive bits c… Read More

Hamming Codes In Digital Communication

2022-02-28 02:25
HAMMING CODES IN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION (n, k) linear block codes are Hamming codes. They can be produced in a systematic or non-systematic manner. A systematic form of Hamming codes The foll… Read More

Principles Of Linear Block Codes

2022-02-24 14:18
LINEAR BLOCK CODES The (n, k) notation describes a family of parity check codes known as block codes. Forward error correction codes are implemented using block codes. Linear Block Codes are… Read More

Discrete Memoryless Channel

2022-02-15 13:36
DISCRETE MEMORYLESS CHANNEL IN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION The channel is the propagation medium or electromagnetic route that connects the transmitter and receiver. By modeling a channel as a sta… Read More

Convolutional Codes Lecture Notes

2022-02-12 12:20
CONVOLUTIONAL CODES The encoder generates an n-bit codeword from a k-bit message block in block coding. As a result, code words are generated one at a time. As a result, to put the message b… Read More

Applications Of Error Control Coding Techniques

2022-02-08 09:49
APPLICATIONS OF ERROR CONTROL CODING TECHNIQUES 1) Coding for White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Channels: • Forward error correction (FEC) codes are used for AWGN Channels. Line-of-sight radi… Read More

Types Of Errors In Data Communication

2022-02-04 05:09
Types of Errors in Data Communication The codewords transmitted across the channel are impacted differently depending on the type of noise. As a result, it's possible that bit 0 sent will be… Read More

Source Coding And Channel Coding Techniques

2022-02-02 10:29
Source Coding and Channel Coding Techniques in Digital Communication Higher transmission rates and excellent dependability are two major desirable aspects in any digital communication system… Read More

Error Control Coding Lecture Notes

2022-01-28 03:53
ERROR CONTROL CODING METHODS LECTURE NOTES To accomplish error detection and correction at the receiver, error control coding approaches entail the systematic insertion of redundant bits to… Read More

2022-01-26 13:05
Spread Spectrum Questions And Answers 1. What is spread spectrum communication, and how does it work? If a system meets all of the above criteria, it is classified as a spread spectrum commu… Read More

2022-01-12 09:42

CDMA - Digital Cellular System

2022-01-07 12:45
CDMA - DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEM The Digital cellular CDMA system is the main application of the spread spectrum technique. This CDMA digital cellular technology based on Direct Sequence… Read More

2022-01-03 05:34
Synchronization in Spread Spectrum Systems Need for Synchronization Synchronization is the process of ensuring that the locally produced carrier at the receiver is in frequency and phase syn… Read More

2021-12-28 05:19
Fast Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Block Diagram: Fast-hopped signals occur in the FH system when there are multiple hops per symbol. As a result, the hop rate Rh is an integer mult… Read More

2021-12-24 09:23
Slow Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum: We have a slow-hopped signal in the FH system when the hopping is done at the symbol rate. As a result, the symbol rate Rs of the MFSK signal is an in… Read More

2021-12-16 13:09
FREQUENCY-HOPPING SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEMS (FH-SS) The use of a PN sequence to modulate a phase shift keyed signal allows immediate spreading of the transmission bandwidth in Direct sequence… Read More

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Block Diagram

2021-12-13 13:16
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Block Diagram The SS modulation techniques may be divided into two groups: averaging type systems and avoidance type systems. By averaging the interference ov… Read More

Pseudo Noise Sequence In Spread Spectrum

2021-12-07 14:06
PSEUDO NOISE SEQUENCE IN SPREAD SPECTRUM A coded sequence of 1s and 0s with specific autocorrelation properties is known as a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence. Both the transmitter and receiver ar… Read More

2021-11-27 13:44
SPREAD SPECTRUM COMMUNICATION SYSTEM The two most important design factors in any digital communication system are: 1) effective channel bandwidth utilization and 2) transmission power cons… Read More

Baseband Transmission System

2021-11-24 10:01
BASEBAND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM In digital communication, formatting is the first and most important signal processing step. Formatting ensures that the message or source signal may be processe… Read More

Types Of Digital Modulation Techniques

2021-11-21 01:56
Digital Modulation TechniquesIn Baseband pulse transmission, the input data in baseband pulse transmission is represented by a discrete PAM signal (Line codes). At low frequencies, the baseb… Read More

Alloys Of Aluminium And Its Uses

2021-11-16 06:15
Alloys of Aluminium and its Properties and UsesAluminium is a very malleable and ductile metal with a soft white colour. It's melting and boiling points are 655°C and 2057°… Read More

Synchronous And Asynchronous Transmission In Data Communication

2021-11-13 05:31
Synchronous and Asynchronous Transmission in Data Communication Serial transmission may be divided into two categories. Depending on how the timing and framing information is communicat… Read More

Serial And Parallel Transmission In Data Communication

2021-11-10 13:55
DATA TRANSMISSION Data transmission refers to the transfer of data such as digitized voice, digitized image and video, computer-generated data, and so on. A data network is created for the t… Read More

Basic Digital Communication Transformations

2021-11-08 13:56
BASIC DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TRANSFORMATIONS The basic signal processing functions that may be considered as transformations are divided into nine categories. 1. Formatting and Source Coding:… Read More

2021-11-05 12:14
A communication system's goal is to produce data-carrying signals from a source in one location to a user destination in another. Communication systems may be classified into two categories… Read More

Digital Communication Channels

2021-11-04 11:24
Types of Digital Communication Channels A communication channel is used in the physical layer to transmit data across a communication network. Additive noise is a typical issue in signal tra… Read More

Typical Digital Communication System

2021-11-02 10:05
Block Diagram of Typical Digital Communication System The transmitter transmits a waveform from a finite set of possible waveforms over a finite period in a digital communication system. The… Read More

Copper Vs Annealed Copper

2021-11-01 13:19
COPPER VS ANNEALED COPPER PROPERTIES OF COPPER   Copper is a reddish metal that is very soft and yielding. It has a great resistance to decay and maybe soldered easily. Its tensile str… Read More

High Resistivity Materials And Their Applications

2021-10-29 13:17
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH RESISTIVITY MATERIALS: MERCURY : It's made of silvery-white metal and is a good electrical conductor. At normal temperature, it is a liquid that dissolve… Read More

Classification Of Materials Based On Energy Band Diagram

2021-10-05 08:43
Classification of Materials based on Energy Band Diagram: The energy band diagram of a conductor, semiconductor, and insulator is shown in the figure. Since the forbidden zone between… Read More

Digital Communication System Block Diagram With Explanation

2021-09-22 11:23
DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Introduction Digital technology is a branch of Electronics and communication. It makes use of digital signals, which are presented in discrete steps. A continuou… Read More

Satellite Multiple Access Techniques

2021-09-09 13:45
MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NOTES Mobile users share the wireless spectrum at the same time. The sharing might be based on frequency, time, or code. Wireless teleph… Read More

Electrostatic Loudspeaker Working

2021-09-06 08:55
Electrostatic Loudspeaker - Working and ConstructionAn electrostatic loudspeaker is a type of loudspeaker that generates sound by applying force to a membrane that is kept in an electrostati… Read More

Facsimile Communication System

2021-09-03 06:26
Facsimile Communication Systems In a communications system, it is necessary to send visual signals in addition to fundamental signals such as speech, music, or telegraph codes. The rece… Read More

GSM In Mobile Communication

2021-09-01 11:46
Digital Cellular System: Digital cellular systems are those which incorporate digital modulation techniques. Digital systems provide significant improvements in capacity and system performan… Read More

Types Of Telephone System

2021-08-30 03:28
TYPES OF TELEPHONE SYSTEM Telephone systems were primarily designed to deliver a human speech (voice). They are also utilized for data transmission. A modem is used to transfer data. The tel… Read More

2021-08-27 12:32

2021-08-25 02:58
MICROPHONES - TYPES, THEIR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES: We can define a  microphone as "an electro-acoustic transducer that transforms sound waves into varying electrical currents… Read More

2021-08-16 11:21
LOUDSPEAKER: An electro-acoustic transducer, or loudspeaker, is a device that transforms electrical signals into sound signals. In sound reproduction, loudspeakers are devices that transform… Read More

Scanning Principles Of Television

2021-07-25 01:53
SCANNING PRINCIPLES OF TELEVISION Scanning is a technique for converting the charge images created within a television camera tube into a variable electrical signal. The TV image is scanned… Read More

PAL Colour TV Receiver Block Diagram With Explanation

2021-07-21 03:12
PAL Colour TV Receiver Block Diagram with Explanation: A colour TV receiver is identical to a black-and-white receiver with the addition of a chroma section and a colour image tube. Figure… Read More

Compact Disc Recording System Block Diagram

2021-07-16 04:12
COMPACT DISC (CD) SYSTEM: A compact disc (CD) may hold a wide range of data. Compact disc signals are stored in a high-density digital format. As a result, the signals captured are a replica… Read More

Working Principle Of LED Display

2021-07-12 11:30
LED DISPLAY UNIT: While both types of TVs use LCD technology and feature flat-panel designs, LED TV is a more sophisticated form of LCD TV. LED TVs use LED backlighting to illuminate LCDs, m… Read More

Write Down Working Principle Of LCD Display

2021-07-10 11:05
LCD DISPLAY UNIT: Colour and monochrome liquid crystal displays (LCDs) of various sizes have been created for TV receivers. LCDs in video display devices are currently available in a variety… Read More

CCTV Simple Block Diagram With Explanation

2021-06-28 03:39
CCTV Block Diagram with Explanation Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is a system in which the circuit is closed and all of the elements are directly connected. We know that, in broadcast tel… Read More

What Is Handycam

2021-06-24 02:59
Handycam (Camcorder) The term camcorder refers to a portable device that records audio and video into a storage medium. The term camcorder refers to a device that combines the func… Read More

2021-06-19 12:42
Plasma Display - Its Advantages and DisadvantagesThe term "panel" refers to a form of flat panel display that is now extensively utilised for huge television displays. An inert mixture… Read More

Block Diagram Of Cable TV Network

2021-06-15 03:04
CABLE TELEVISION (CABLE TV): Cable television is a type of CCTV in which users get regular channel television signals over coaxial cables in exchange for a monthly fee. Master Antenna… Read More

Crystal Oscillators

2021-06-12 10:41
Crystal Oscillators Due to the variations in temperature, humidity, transistor, and circuit constants, etc. The frequency stability is usually poor in conventional radio frequency oscillato… Read More

What Is Current And Voltage In Electronics

2021-06-06 12:18
Current and Voltage in ElectronicsIn electrical circuits, it is important to keep track of two quantities: voltage and current. Both voltage and current usually change with time. … Read More

Radio Frequency Bandwidth Of The Signal

2021-05-29 07:06
Radio Frequency Bandwidth of the Signal The frequency range (i.e., bandwidth) required for a given transmission is depend on the bandwidth occupied by the modulation signals itself. For exam… Read More

Single Sideband Amplitude Modulation

2021-05-23 07:40
Single Sideband Amplitude Modulation The general AM equation shows that when a carrier is amplitude-modulated by a single sine wave, the resulting signal consists of three frequencies &mdash&hell…Read More

AM Modulator Block Diagram

2021-05-16 10:50
AM Transmitter Block DiagramNote: Class C RF output amplifier is used in High Level Modulation. Class B RF linear power amplifier is used in Low Level Modulation. The general block diagram… Read More

FM Transmitter Block Diagram With Explanation

2021-05-13 10:58
FM Transmitter Block Diagram with Explanation of Each BlockBlock diagram of a low level FM broadcast transmitter is shown in figure. The master oscillator generates the RF signal (carrier) r… Read More

FM Receiver Block Diagram With Explanation

2021-05-08 09:49
Block Diagram of FM Receiver with Explanation Standard broadcast for FM is 88-108 MHz. The maximum permissible deviation is 200 KHz. In FM the intermediate frequency is 10.7 MHz. In FM the o… Read More

2021-05-05 11:56
Superheterodyne receiver is the most popular type of radio receiver. In superheterodyne receiver, the selected RF signal is converted to a lower fixed frequency called intermediate frequency… Read More

2021-05-04 06:26
The TRF receiver is the simplest type of AM radio receiver. The block diagram of a Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) receiver is shown in the figure. Infinite number of transmitters installed thro… Read More

2021-05-02 06:23
Main functions of a radio receiver are, 1. Selection of RF signals from a number of different frequencies surrounding the antenna. 2. The amplification of selected RF signal. 3. Demodulati… Read More

Logic Devices For Interfacing

2021-04-20 09:16
A microcomputer system consists of four components namely microprocessor, memory, input devices and output devices. In order to design a microprocessor based system for a particular applicat… Read More

Basic Operations Of Microprocessor

2021-04-17 02:43
A microprocessor is a programmable electronic device that has computing and decision making capability similar to that of a central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. Today, the applicatio… Read More

Microprocessor Programming Languages

2021-04-13 09:00
Taming the microprocessor, for a particular application is done by giving instructions to the microprocessor. Instruction is a command given to the microprocessor to carry out a particular t… Read More

Applications Of Microcontrollers

2021-04-13 07:24
Microcontrollers are also called embedded controllers or single chip microcomputers. Microcontroller is simply a computer on a chip. Microcontrollers find applications in environment where p… Read More

Communication System Block Diagram Explanation

2021-04-12 03:18
Communications Systems The process of transmission of information or message from one end to another is known as communication. When electromagnetic or radio waves are utilized for communic… Read More

Modulation And Need For Modulation

2021-04-09 13:15
Modulation and Need of Modulation Modulation may be defined as a process by which any characteristics of a wave is varied as a function of the instantaneous value of another wave. The first… Read More

Fundamentals Of Electromagnetic Waves

2021-04-08 11:52
Electromagnetic waves are oscillations that transmit through free space with the velocity as that of light. Free space is the space that does not interfere with the normal radiation and prop… Read More

Cable Meaning In Electronics

2021-04-06 02:28
What is Cable in Electronics?Cable It is an insulated bundle of metal wires or threadlike fibres that carry electric current. They are widely used to distribute electric power and to transmi… Read More

Abacus And Calculator Meaning In Electronics

2021-04-01 06:51
Abacus and Calculator meaning in ElectronicsAbacus Abacus is a calculating device which consists of balls strung on wires or rods set in a frame. It is almost certainly of Babylonian or… Read More

Branches Of Medical Treatment

2021-03-26 09:59
Here are a list of branches of medical treatment are as follows, Anesthesiology In 1847 and 1848, a Scottish doctor named Sir James Y Simpson used chloroform to relieve the pain of childbirt… Read More

List Of Biomedical Devices

2021-03-24 08:41
Here are a list of biomedical equipment used in Hospitals,Electrocardiograph (ECG) Electrocardiograph (ECG) is an instrument used to diagnose heart disorders. For each time the heart beats… Read More

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