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SQL PL/SQL Interview Questions 5

21: What is GROUP BY?
A: The GROUP BY keywords have been added to SQL because aggregate functions (like SUM) return the aggregate of all column values every time they are called. Without the GROUP BY functionality, finding the sum for each individual group of column values was not possible.

22: What is the difference among "dropping a table", "truncating a table" and "deleting all records" from a table.
A: Dropping : (Table structure + Data are deleted), Invalidates the dependent objects ,Drops the indexes
Truncating: (Data alone deleted), Performs an automatic commit, Faster than delete
Delete : (Data alone deleted), Doesn�t perform automatic commit

23: What are the Large object types suported by Oracle?
A: Blob and Clob.

24: Difference between a "where" clause and a "having" clause.
A: Having clause is used only with group functions whereas Where is not used with.

25: What's the difference between a primary key and a unique key?
A: Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default. Another major difference is that, primary key doesn't allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only.

26: What are cursors? Explain different types of cursors. What are the disadvantages of cursors? How can you avoid cursors?
A: Cursors allow row-by-row prcessing of the resultsets.
Types of cursors: Static, Dynamic, Forward-only, Keyset-driven. See books online for more information.
Disadvantages of cursors: Each time you fetch a row from the cursor, it results in a network roundtrip, where as a normal SELECT query makes only one rowundtrip, however large the resultset is. Cursors are also costly because they require more resources and temporary storage (results in more IO operations). Furthere, there are restrictions on the SELECT statements that can be used with some types of cursors.
Most of the times, set based operations can be used instead of cursors.


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SQL PL/SQL Interview Questions 5


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