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A Reality Check on the Future of AI and Machine Learning for ...

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The Emergence Of AI In Cybersecurity: Revolutionizing Threat Detection Through Machine Learning





Welcome to the era where artificial intelligence (AI) is reshaping our world, and the realm of cybersecurity is no exception. In the face of increasingly sophisticated cyber threats, conventional methods of threat detection are struggling to keep pace. Fortunately, the advent of machine learning is offering a lifeline, equipping cybersecurity experts with unprecedented tools to pinpoint and combat digital threats effectively. In this blog post, we will delve into how AI and machine learning are revolutionizing threat detection in the field of cybersecurity, unveiling their potential to secure our digital future. Join us as we explore the rise of AI in cybersecurity and its game-changing impact on threat detection.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a term used to describe systems capable of autonomous learning and decision-making based on data. In cybersecurity, AI plays a vital role in identifying and safeguarding against threats.

AI systems excel in analyzing vast datasets at lightning speed and with exceptional accuracy, outperforming human capabilities. They excel at identifying patterns that might elude human analysts, empowering security teams to gain deeper insights into network risks and take proactive measures.

One notable application of AI in cybersecurity is the development of intrusion detection systems. These systems are engineered to spot abnormal activities within a network or system and raise alarms when suspicious events occur.

AI-driven intrusion detection systems surpass traditional ones by not relying on predefined rules. Consequently, they produce fewer false alarms, minimizing the risk of human error during threat investigation.

Several organizations have already embraced AI-based intrusion detection systems, and their adoption is expected to grow as more businesses realize the benefits they offer. Moreover, AI extends its utility to various aspects of cybersecurity, such as automating tasks like malware analysis and vulnerability scanning, reducing manual workloads, and allowing security teams to concentrate on critical assignments.

Advantages of AI in Cybersecurity
  • Accelerated Threat Identification and Response: Machine learning expedites the identification and response to cyber threats.
  • Enhanced Precision in Threat Detection and Response: AI improves the accuracy of threat detection and response.
  • Reduced False Positives: Machine learning cuts down on false positives in cybersecurity.
  • Identification of New Threats and Vulnerabilities: Machine learning can discover novel threats and vulnerabilities.
  • Automation of Threat Detection and Response: AI automates the process of spotting and reacting to cyber threats.
  • Privacy Protection: Machine learning safeguards user data and systems against unauthorized access.
  • Cost Efficiency: AI streamlines cybersecurity operations, providing efficient and cost-effective security solutions.
  • Challenges in Implementing AI in Cybersecurity

    Despite the promising advantages of AI in cybersecurity, several challenges must be addressed to make it a viable solution:

    Data Scarcity: Effective machine learning algorithms require large, high-quality datasets, which many organizations lack.

    Skill Gap: Limited experts are skilled in applying AI and machine learning to cybersecurity problems, hindering solution development and implementation.

    Bias Concerns: Machine learning models can inherit biases from training data, potentially leading to inaccurate predictions and jeopardizing security operations.

    Privacy and Trust: As AI solutions evolve and play a role in threat detection and response, concerns regarding user data usage and storage escalate. Organizations must implement robust privacy safeguards.

    Real-World Applications of AI in Cybersecurity

    Automated Threat Detection: AI automates the detection of threats and flags them for human review, reducing false positives and enhancing efficiency.

    Cyberattack Prevention: AI identifies potential cyberattacks in advance and takes preventative actions to minimize damage.

    Improved Incident Response: AI accelerates incident response by identifying incidents earlier and providing accurate information.

    Enhanced Security Analytics: AI delivers advanced security analytics beyond conventional methods, enabling better comprehension of security posture.

    AI automates the verification of security policy and procedure compliance, ensuring it meets legal and regulatory obligations in automated compliance checking.

    Automated Patch Management: AI automates system and application patching, reducing the risk of exploitation by keeping systems up to date.

    Machine Learning and Deep Learning in Cybersecurity

    Deep learning, a branch of machine learning inspired by the structure and function of the human brain, plays a crucial role in cybersecurity because of its ability to learn and enhance performance without requiring explicit programming.

    it's is instrumental in various cybersecurity tasks, including the detection of malware, intrusion detection, and the analysis of network traffic, effectively tackling the intricacies of these challenges.

    its models excel particularly in tasks like malware detection, where there are numerous variations and limited labeling available, as well as intrusion detection, which involves identifying a wide spectrum of potential attacks and normal system behaviors."

    Network traffic analysis, a core aspect of cybersecurity, benefits from deep learning's capability to identify malicious activity.

    Deep learning models often outperform traditional machine learning methods in these tasks, thanks to their ability to grasp intricate data patterns, scalability, and modest resource demands.

    Best Practices for AI Adoption in Cybersecurity When integrating AI into cybersecurity practices, consider these best practices:

    Augment Traditional Security Measures: Combine AI with existing security tools like firewalls and intrusion detection systems to enhance threat detection and response.

    Develop Innovative Security Measures: Implement AI-driven security measures like behavior-based authentication and anomaly detection for more effective threat mitigation.

    Data scientists are essential for managing noisy and incomplete cybersecurity data, ensuring accurate model outcomes.

    Continuously Monitor and Update AI Models: As threats evolve, AI models must adapt and learn new patterns. Regular monitoring and updates are essential for maintaining the effectiveness of AI-powered security measures.


    AI and machine learning are already integral components of modern cybersecurity, providing powerful tools to detect and counteract threats proactively. By harnessing the capabilities of AI and ML, organizations swiftly identify suspicious activities within their networks and respond appropriately. As technology advances, we anticipate even more sophisticated capabilities that enhance threat detection and prevention.

    Why Open Source Is The Cradle Of Artificial Intelligence

    Stabiilty.Ai + Lightning.Ai

    In a way, open source and artificial intelligence were born together. 

    Back in 1971, if you'd mentioned AI to most people, they might have thought of Isaac Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. However, AI was already a real subject that year at MIT, where Richard M. Stallman (RMS) joined MIT's Artificial Intelligence Lab. Years later, as proprietary software sprang up, RMS developed the radical idea of Free Software. Decades later, this concept, transformed into open source, would become the birthplace of modern AI.

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    It wasn't a science-fiction writer but a computer scientist, Alan Turing, who started the modern AI movement. Turing's 1950 paper Computing Machine and Intelligence originated the Turing Test. The test, in brief, states that if a machine can fool you into thinking that you're talking with a human being, it's intelligent.

     According to some people, today's AIs can already do this. I don't agree, but we're clearly on our way.

    In 1960, computer scientist John McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" and, along the way, created the Lisp language.  McCarthy's achievement, as computer scientist Paul Graham put it, "did for programming something like what Euclid did for geometry. He showed how, given a handful of simple operators and a notation for functions, you can build a whole programming language."

    Lisp, in which data and code are mixed, became AI's first language. It was also RMS's first programming love.

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    So, why didn't we have a GNU-ChatGPT in the 1980s? There are many theories. The one I prefer is that early AI had the right ideas in the wrong decade. The hardware wasn't up to the challenge. Other essential elements -- like Big Data -- weren't yet available to help real AI get underway. Open-source projects such as Hdoop, Spark, and Cassandra provided the tools that AI and machine learning needed for storing and processing large amounts of data on clusters of machines. Without this data and quick access to it, Large Language Models (LLMs) couldn't work.

    Today, even Bill Gates -- no fan of open source -- admits that open-source-based AI is the biggest thing since he was introduced to the idea of a graphical user interface (GUI) in 1980. From that GUI idea, you may recall, Gates built a little program called Windows.

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    In particular, today's wildly popular AI generative models, such as ChatGPT and Llama 2, sprang from open-source origins. That's not to say ChatGPT, Llama 2, or DALL-E are open source. They're not.

    Oh, they were supposed to be. As Elon Musk, an early OpenAI investor, said: "OpenAI was created as an open source (which is why I named it "Open" AI), non-profit company to serve as a counterweight to Google, but now it has become a closed source, maximum-profit company effectively controlled by Microsoft. Not what I intended at all."

    Be that as it may, OpenAI and all the other generative AI programs are built on open-source foundations. In particular, Hugging Face's Transformer is the top open-source library for building today's machine learning (ML) models. Funny name and all, it provides pre-trained models, architectures, and tools for natural language processing tasks. This enables developers to build upon existing models and fine-tune them for specific use cases. In particular, ChatGPT relies on Hugging Face's library for its GPT LLMs. Without Transformer, there's no ChatGPT.

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    In addition, TensorFlow and PyTorch, developed by Google and Facebook, respectively, fueled ChatGPT. These Python frameworks provide essential tools and libraries for building and training deep learning models. Needless to say, other open-source AI/ML programs are built on top of them. For example, Keras, a high-level TensorFlow API, is often used by developers without deep learning backgrounds to build neural networks. 

    You can argue until you're blue in the face as to which one is better -- and AI programmers do -- but both TensorFlow and PyTorch are used in multiple projects. Behind the scenes of your favorite AI chatbot is a mix of different open-source projects.

    Some top-level programs, such as Meta's Llama-2, claim that they're open source. They're not. Although many open-source programmers have turned to Llama because it's about as open-source friendly as any of the large AI programs, when push comes to shove, Llama-2 isn't open source. True, you can download it and use it. With model weights and starting code for the pre-trained model and conversational fine-tuned versions, it's easy to build Llama-powered applications. There's only one tiny problem buried in the licensing: If your program is wildly successful and you have 

    greater than 700 million monthly active users in the preceding calendar month, you must request a license from Meta, which Meta may grant to you in its sole discretion, and you are not authorized to exercise any of the rights under this Agreement unless or until Meta otherwise expressly grants you such rights.

    You can give up any dreams you might have of becoming a billionaire by writing Virtual Girl/Boy Friend based on Llama. Mark Zuckerberg will thank you for helping him to another few billion.

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    Now, there do exist some true open-source LLMs -- such as Falcon180B. However, nearly all the major commercial LLMs aren't properly open source. Mind you, all the major LLMs were trained on open data. For instance, GPT-4 and most other large LLMs get some of their data from CommonCrawl, a text archive that contains petabytes of data crawled from the web. If you've written something on a public site -- a birthday wish on Facebook, a Reddit comment on Linux, a Wikipedia mention, or a book on Archives.Org -- if it was written in HTML, chances are your data is in there somewhere.   

    So, is open source doomed to be always a bridesmaid, never a bride in the AI business? Not so fast.

    In a leaked internal Google document, a Google AI engineer wrote, "The uncomfortable truth is, we aren't positioned to win this [Generative AI] arms race, and neither is OpenAI. While we've been squabbling, a third faction has been quietly eating our lunch." 

    That third player? The open-source community.

    As it turns out, you don't need hyperscale clouds or thousands of high-end GPUs to get useful answers out of generative AI. In fact, you can run LLMs on a smartphone: People are running foundation models on a Pixel 6 at five LLM tokens per second. You can also finetune a personalized AI on your laptop in an evening. When you can "personalize a language model in a few hours on consumer hardware," the engineer noted, "[it's] a big deal." That's for sure. 

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    Thanks to fine-tuning mechanisms, such as the Hugging Face open-source low-rank adaptation (LoRA), you can perform model fine-tuning for a fraction of the cost and time of other methods. How much of a fraction? How does personalizing a language model in a few hours on consumer hardware sound to you? 

    The Google developer added:

     "Part of what makes LoRA so effective is that -- like other forms of fine-tuning -- it's stackable. Improvements like instruction tuning can be applied and then leveraged as other contributors add on dialogue, or reasoning, or tool use. While the individual fine tunings are low rank, their sum need not be, allowing full-rank updates to the model to accumulate over time. This means that as new and better datasets and tasks become available, the model can be cheaply kept up to date without ever having to pay the cost of a full run."

    Our mystery programmer concluded, "Directly competing with open source is a losing proposition.… We should not expect to be able to catch up. The modern internet runs on open source for a reason. Open source has some significant advantages that we cannot replicate."

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    Thirty years ago, no one dreamed that an open-source operating system could ever usurp proprietary systems like Unix and Windows. Perhaps it will take a lot less than three decades for a truly open, soup-to-nuts AI program to overwhelm the semi-proprietary programs we're using today.

    Artificial Intelligence AI is a lot like streaming. The add-ons add up fast How to use ChatGPT to do research for papers, presentations, studies, and more Uh oh, now AI is better than you at prompt engineering What is generative AI and why is it so popular? Here's everything you need to know

    AI And Machine Learning Can Detect Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) can effectively detect and diagnose Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common hormone disorder among women, typically between ages 15 and 45, according to a new study by the National Institutes of Health. Researchers systematically reviewed published scientific studies that used AI/ML to analyze data to diagnose and classify PCOS and found that AI/ML based programs were able to successfully detect PCOS.

    "Given the large burden of under- and mis-diagnosed PCOS in the community and its potentially serious outcomes, we wanted to identify the utility of AI/ML in the identification of patients that may be at risk for PCOS," said Janet Hall, M.D., senior investigator and endocrinologist at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), part of NIH, and a study co-author. "The effectiveness of AI and machine learning in detecting PCOS was even more impressive than we had thought."

    PCOS occurs when the ovaries do not work properly, and in many cases, is accompanied by elevated levels of testosterone. The disorder can cause irregular periods, acne, extra facial hair, or hair loss from the head. Women with PCOS are often at an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, as well as sleep, psychological, cardiovascular, and other reproductive disorders such as uterine cancer and infertility.

    "PCOS can be challenging to diagnose given its overlap with other conditions," said Skand Shekhar, M.D., senior author of the study and assistant research physician and endocrinologist at the NIEHS. "These data reflect the untapped potential of incorporating AI/ML in electronic health records and other clinical settings to improve the diagnosis and care of women with PCOS."

    Subscribe to Technology Networks' daily newsletter, delivering breaking science news straight to your inbox every day.

    Subscribe for FREE Study authors suggested integrating large population-based studies with electronic health datasets and analyzing common laboratory tests to identify sensitive diagnostic biomarkers that can facilitate the diagnosis of PCOS.

    Diagnosis is based on widely accepted standardized criteria that have evolved over the years, but typically includes clinical features (e.G., acne, excess hair growth, and irregular periods) accompanied by laboratory (e.G., high blood testosterone) and radiological findings (e.G., multiple small cysts and increased ovarian volume on ovarian ultrasound). However, because some of the features of PCOS can co-occur with other disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiometabolic disorders, it frequently goes unrecognized.

    AI refers to the use of computer-based systems or tools to mimic human intelligence and to help make decisions or predictions. ML is a subdivision of AI focused on learning from previous events and applying this knowledge to future decision-making. AI can process massive amounts of distinct data, such as that derived from electronic health records, making it an ideal aid in the diagnosis of difficult to diagnose disorders like PCOS.

    The researchers conducted a systematic review of all peer-reviewed studies published on this topic for the past 25 years (1997-2022) that used  AI/ML to detect PCOS. With the help of an experienced NIH librarian, the researchers identified potentially eligible studies. In total, they screened 135 studies and included 31 in this paper. All studies were observational and assessed the use of AI/ML technologies on patient diagnosis. Ultrasound images were included in about  half the studies. The average age of the participants in the studies was 29.

    Among the 10 studies that used standardized diagnostic criteria to diagnose PCOS, the accuracy of detection ranged from 80-90%.

    "Across a range of diagnostic and classification modalities, there was an extremely high performance of AI/ML in detecting PCOS, which is the most important takeaway of our study," said Shekhar.

    The authors note that AI/ML based programs have the potential to significantly enhance our capability to identify women with PCOS early, with associated cost savings and a reduced burden of PCOS on patients and on the health system.

    Follow-up studies with robust validation and testing practices will allow for the smooth integration of AI/ML for chronic health conditions.

    Reference: Barrera FJ, Brown EDL, Rojo A, et al. Application of machine learning and artificial intelligence in the diagnosis and classification of polycystic ovarian syndrome: a systematic review. Front Endocrinol. 2023;14. Doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1106625

    This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

    This post first appeared on Autonomous AI, please read the originial post: here

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