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What Is The Cause Of Enlarged Red Blood Cells

What Is The Cause Of Enlarged Red Blood Cells – Hematochezia refers to the passage of fresh, bright red blood in the stool and usually indicates bleeding from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The lower GI tract is defined as the region isolated from the junction of Treitz, which is a thin band of tissue that connects and supports the end of the duodenum and the beginning of the jejunum. Hematochezia should not be confused with melena, which refers to the area of ​​black stool, which originates in the upper GI tract, near the junction of Treitz.

Causes of hematochezia in adults often include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including peptic ulcer disease; hemorrhoids; and bleeding from the diverticulum in the colon. In addition, peptic ulcer disease and esophageal varices are common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding that can cause hematochezia when severe.

What Is The Cause Of Enlarged Red Blood Cells

Ulcerative colitis is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease that involves an autoimmune attack of the large intestine (ie, the colon), causing inflammation and ulceration of the mucosal lining. Severe ulcerative colitis can cause hematochezia due to bleeding from the ulcer.

Hematuria (blood In The Urine)

Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the lower rectum, and they can be painful or painful, depending on whether they are inside or outside, respectively. They are often caused by straining during bowel movements associated with obesity and pregnancy. When the walls of the blood vessels in the hemorrhoids are stretched too much because of the increased pressure in the rectum, which is usually caused by problems, hematochezia can occur.

Diverticulosis is a condition that occurs when small pouches (ie, diverticulum) develop and protrude from the wall of the colon, which can cause bleeding. Genetics and a diet high in fat and low in fiber predispose a person to develop pouches.

Peptic ulcer disease occurs when the mucosal lining of the stomach and duodenum of the small intestine is damaged due to the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If the wound is severe, rapid bleeding can occur, and immediate treatment is necessary due to the risk of hypovolemic shock.

Esophageal varices refer to the presence of enlarged veins in the esophagus due to obstruction of the flow in the portal vein, which is usually caused by an overactive liver. Accumulation of blood can lead to esophageal vein rupture, which manifests as severe blood loss and melena (ie, black, tarry stools) or hematochezia.

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In the elderly, arteriovenous vein disease (AVM) can cause frequent, often minor, bleeding. AVM is a vascular lesion that can occur anywhere along the GI tract, most commonly in the colon and is associated with aging; chronic kidney disease; and certain types of heart disease, such as aortic stenosis. Less common causes of colon hemorrhage in adults include cancer and ischemic colitis (ie, inflammation of the colon).

Causes of hematochezia in infants include necrotizing enterocolitis and midgut volvulus. Necrotizing enterocolitis refers to the death of tissue and part of the colon due to reduced blood flow, and midgut volvulus occurs when the intestine twists during embryonic development.

Signs and symptoms of hematochezia usually include bright red blood in the stool that is seen either on the toilet or on the toilet paper when you flush and feeling pain or pressure in the rectum. In many cases, a person with hematochezia may not be aware of their hematochezia and may not report any symptoms. In other cases, individuals may experience abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, and even syncope (i.e., depression) depending on the cause and amount of bleeding. Hematochezia that occurs over a long period of time can lead to excessive blood flow leading to anemia, which can lead to palpitations, shortness of breath, and syncope. Severe and rapid blood loss can also cause hypovolemia and shock. Also, bleeding associated with an underlying malignancy (ie, colorectal cancer) may result in undiagnosed obesity.

Hematochezia can be diagnosed in the history of the patient if the person seeks guidance because of passing blood in the stool or has related symptoms, such as depression or headache. The doctor can ask questions to confirm the presence of bleeding, measure the amount and speed of blood loss, determine the source and possible causes, and determine the amount of bleeding. Diagnostics includes a thorough physical examination followed by a more focused digital examination where a gloed finger is placed, forced into the vagina to feel for any abnormalities, such as growth, swelling fissures, or hemorrhoids. The doctor may order laboratory tests, including hemoglobin levels, to diagnose anemia. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy can also be performed, which is a procedure where the doctor inserts a small tube and camera through the esophagus and rectum, respectively. These procedures are done under sedation and allow the doctor to see where the bleeding is coming from. A computerized tomography (CT) scan can be done to visualize the source of the blood loss, and if active bleeding is present, a nuclear red blood cell analysis can be used to determine the source of the bleeding. Nuclear red blood cell analysis uses a small amount of radioactive material to freeze red blood cells (RBCs), so they can be visualized and identified in the body.

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Hematochezia is treated by restoring the patient’s blood volume to help prevent hypovolemia and shock, which is a medical emergency. The second step in treatment usually involves finding the source of the bleeding. Finally, depending on the site and the cause, the doctor can use a combination of drug treatment, endoscopic cauterization (that is, a procedure that uses a light probe to close the bleeding vessels), and surgery. In the case of hemorrhoids, a topical treatment or suppository containing hydrocortisone can help relieve pain. IBD can be treated with drugs that control inflammation, such as aminosalicylates (ie, balsalazide, mesalamine, olsalazine) or immunosuppressants (ie, azathioprine and mercaptopurine).

Diverticulosis is often treated with supportive care, such as a high-fiber diet, but it can resolve on its own. Ischemic colitis on the other hand can be self-limiting and can be treated with supportive care, such as rest and fluids. If it is serious, antibiotics (for example, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin) can be given to reduce the risk of infection and necrosis.

AVM and colon cancer may require more invasive methods, such as endoscopic cauterization and surgery, respectively. Necrotizing enterocolitis is usually treated with feeding tubes and surgery, depending on the severity. Finally, midgut volvulus can be reduced or reversed with surgery.

Hematochezia refers to the passage of blood in the stool from the lower gastrointestinal tract. It usually occurs due to inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids, and diverticulosis in adults; arteriovenous veins and colon cancer in adults; and necrotizing enterocolitis and midgut volvulus in infants and children. Signs of hematochezia include bright red blood that is visible in the stool or on the toilet paper after cleaning. A person with hematochezia may also faint due to blood loss associated with symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, or diarrhea. Diagnosis is made by a trained physician after a thorough interview and physical examination, sometimes followed by a colonoscopy, CT scan, and nuclear red blood cell analysis. Treatment depends on the cause but usually involves restoring the quality of blood that has been lost, finding the source of the bleeding, and stopping the bleeding. The causes of hematochezia can be treated with the above drugs and creams, and in more severe cases, surgery can be performed.

Bright Red Blood In Stool: Causes And When To See A Doctor

Diverticular disease. At the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Retrieved February 25, 2022, from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/diverticulosis-diverticulitis#:~:text=Diverticulosis%20is%20a%20condition%20that, call%20this %20condition%20diverticular%20 disease.

Ishikawa, S., Mukai, S., Hirata, Y., Kohata, A., Kai, A., Namba, Y., Okimoto, S., Fujisaki, S., Fukuda, S., Takahashi, M., Fukuda, T., & Ohdan, H. (2020). Atrial fibrillation is treated with transcatheter ablation. Case Reports in Gastroenterology, 14(1): 7–14. DOI: 10.1159/000505090

Liu, J. J., & Saltzman, J. R. (2009). Endoscopic hemostasis treatment: how to do it? Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 23(7): 484. DOI: 10.1155/2009/857125

Walker, HK, Hall, W.D., & Hurst, J.W. (Eds.). (1990). Clinical methods: Histological, physical, and laboratory evaluation (3rd ed.). Butterworths. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK411/Pernicious anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells due to insufficient vitamin B12. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a nutrient required for the synthesis of healthy red blood cells. Vitamin B12 is commonly found in foods of animal origin, such as fish, meat, poultry, eggs and some dairy products.

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Pernicious anemia is considered a type of megaloblastic anemia, in which the bone marrow produces large, abnormal, immature red blood cells. A lack of folic acid, or vitamin B9, is another common cause of megaloblastic anemia.

Pernicious anemia is caused by the inability of the body to absorb vitamin B12 from the small intestine, due to the lack of a protein called intrinsic factor. Its content is a protein that can bind to cobalamin and make it enter the body. The contents are released directly from the parietal cells in the stomach, and

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What Is The Cause Of Enlarged Red Blood Cells

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