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Types of Construction and Decorative Materials in Civil Engineering

Islamabad: The increasing migratory tendency has allowed building firms to build more quickly. To accommodate more people in cities and suburbs, multistory high-rise, mid-rise, and low-rise structures are being constructed worldwide, including Pakistan. The materials utilized in the Construction process differ from building to building if we discuss that process. However, all buildings use some common materials for construction and ornamentation. Building materials are utilized to construct the building’s structure, and decorative materials give it a lovely appearance.

We should know the fundamental kinds of building materials before getting into the specifics.

Two fundamental categories of building materials exist:

  1. Construction materials
  2. Decorative materials

Construction Materials

The building’s skeleton and general structure are constructed from this material. Depending on the needs, various construction materials are used throughout the process.

Read More: Construction Cost of Grey Structure of 5 Marla Houses in 2023

The additional classification of the building materials is as follows:

1. Bricks

A fundamental component of construction is Brick. It is just as crucial as establishing the foundation and is utilized in every building. Without bricks, no structure could be built. It is used to construct flooring, walls, beams, columns, and other architectural details.

Bricks are further divided into the subsequent categories:

Sun-Dried Brick

Sand and clay are combined to make these bricks, which are then sun-dried. Most people utilize them in rural areas. These are inexpensive yet easily damaged by water.

Burnt Clay Bricks

To make these bricks, sand, and clay are combined, dried in a solar heart, and then burned in a kiln at a predetermined temperature. Even though these bricks are a little pricey, 90% of structures worldwide are built with them.

Concrete Bricks

Concrete bricks, primarily used in places where burnt clay bricks are expensive or unavailable, are composed of cement, sand, and gravel. Due to their susceptibility to atmospheric humidity, these bricks are hefty and have a finite lifespan.

Stone Bricks

When sedimentary rocks are correctly formed and cut, bricks like these are created. Since these rocks are abundant in steep places, stone bricks are typically employed there. The most durable bricks are these.

2: Steel/ Iron

Iron and steel are utilized throughout construction to give the structure durability. But compared to iron, steel is more elastic and earthquake-proof. Bricks are used to fill the spaces left by these in the concrete sections of the structure.

3: Cement

It is the jointing material that is most commonly used worldwide. Similar to bricks, cement comes in a variety of forms.

The types of cement used in the building process are listed below:


Ordinary Portland Cement, or OPC as it is commonly known, is used worldwide. It is utilized in plaster, mortar, and concrete.


Portland Pozzalana Cement, or OPC PPC PPC, is created by combining OPC with ground pozzalanic clinker. It is not easily damaged by water.


PPC RHPC OPC cement is combined with C3A and C3S to create RHPC (Rapid Hardening Cement). It is extensively utilized in cold-weather concreting, concrete masonry, urgent repair work, and precast concrete fabrication.

4: Wood

Wood is the following material that is utilized in construction. Wood is used to build entire buildings in forested areas and to make doors, windows, and other architectural elements in non-forest areas.

The types of wood used in construction are listed below:


It’s used to construct desks, cabinets, door frames, window treatments, and wooden panels. This kind of wood comes from walnut, teak, and deodar trees.


Hardwood is less durable than this pliable, soft wood. It is utilized in desks, doors, floors, walls, and wooden panels. Hemlock, Silver Phir, Blue Phir, and Pine are the trees that yield this kind of wood.

Decorative Materials

The next category of building materials is the ornamental materials used to give the building an appealing appearance. It contains a variety of materials, including.

  • Metamorphic rocks
  • Precious stones
  • Dyes

The flooring is covered in marble and other metamorphic stones. A range of marbles, including crystalline limestone marbles, are utilized in construction. Marbles are a symbol of class and wealth. In addition, glass is currently a commonly used architectural decoration material. A building that is constructed with both of these components is both aesthetically beautiful and long-lasting.

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Types of Construction and Decorative Materials in Civil Engineering


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