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Ancient History Encyclopedia is a non-profit educational website with a global vision: to provide the best ancient history information on the internet for free.
2023-06-02 16:00
The celebration of Juneteenth originally known as "Freedom Day" began on 1 January 1866 in Texas and, since then, a number of myths have grown up around the event it commemorates: the issu… Read More
2023-06-02 09:00
The Battle of the Nile (1-2 August 1798), or the Battle of Aboukir Bay, saw a British fleet led by Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) destroy a French fleet at Aboukir Bay near the… Read More
2023-06-01 16:00
Juneteenth is an annual event celebrating the end of chattel slavery in the United States in commemorating the issuance of General Order No. 3 (which included the line "all slaves are free")… Read More
2023-06-01 09:13
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was an Austrian composer who wrote a wide range of works including piano concertos, string quartets, symphonies, operas, and sacred music. Regarded as one… Read More
2023-05-30 16:00
Johann Strauss II (1825-1899), aka Strauss the Younger, was an Austrian composer best known for his waltzes such as The Blue Danube. Famed throughout Europe and the United States in his own… Read More
2023-05-30 09:00
Plato of Athens (424 or 423 to 347 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher whose work is considered so important that he may be called the inventor of philosophy as we understand the term toda… Read More
Kutuzov: A Life In War And Peace
2023-05-29 08:00
Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov is best known in the West as the general who led imperial Russian forces to victory over Napoleon during his 1812 invasion of Russia. In Russian culture, Kutuzo… Read More
2023-05-26 08:56
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) was an Italian violin virtuoso and composer of baroque music (c. 1600-1750). Best known for his violin concertos, notably The Four Seasons, Vivaldi made a signifi… Read More
2023-05-25 15:59
Mauretania was an ancient kingdom in northwest Africa, encompassing regions of modern-day Morocco and Algeria. Although it shares a name with the modern country of Mauritania, they do not ov… Read More
2023-05-24 15:57
The Battle of the Pyramids (21 July 1798), or the Battle of Embabeh, was a significant battle fought during Napoleon's Campaign in Egypt and Syria. On a battlefield 15 km (9 mi) away from th… Read More
2023-05-24 09:00
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) was an Italian composer best known for operas such as Rigoletto, La traviata, and Aida. Verdi is noted for his powerful scores and strong characters where anti-her… Read More
2023-05-23 09:00
Britannicus (41-55 CE) was the second child and only son born to the Roman emperor Claudius (r. 41-54 CE) and Valeria Messalina (c. 20-48 CE). Seen as a threat by Claudius' fourth wife, Agri… Read More
2023-05-19 16:00
Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) was a Norwegian composer known for his songs, piano music, and the Peer Gynt suites. The composer was famous in his own lifetime, touring extensively to play and con… Read More
2023-05-18 16:00
At the dawn of the French Wars of Religion (1562-1598), Montpellier in southern France had a significant Protestant minority that controlled the city's institutions. The Edict of Nantes in 1… Read More
2023-05-18 09:19
The Coup of 18 Brumaire (9-10 November 1799) was a bloodless coup d'tat in France that overthrew the government of the French Directory and replaced it with the French Consulate. The coup br… Read More
2023-05-17 08:58
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) was a German composer of Romantic music best known for his symphonies, songs, and orchestral, chamber, and piano music. A great student of the history of music, B… Read More
2023-05-16 15:58
Diana was the goddess of childbirth, the fertility goddess, the goddess of the moon as well as the patron goddess of wild beasts in Roman mythology. However, she is best known as the goddess… Read More
2023-05-16 09:00
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911) was an Austrian-Bohemian composer best known for his song-cycles and his grand, sweeping symphonies, which often require expanded orchestras for their full performa… Read More
2023-05-15 16:00
Khamsa (also known as Quintet or Panj Ganj) is the best-known work of Nizami Ganjavi (c. 1141- 1209 CE) and without a doubt one of the most prominent works of Persian literature. Written dur… Read More
2023-05-12 08:57
The War of the Second Coalition (1798-1802), part of the broader French Revolutionary Wars, was the second attempt by an alliance of major European powers to defeat Revolutionary France. The… Read More
2023-05-11 09:04
Frdric Chopin (1810-1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso noted for his solo piano music. Chopin's work helped make the piano the most popular musical instrument of the 19th century. One… Read More
2023-05-10 08:56
The Battle of Rivoli (14-15 January 1797) was the climactic battle of Napoleon's Italian Campaign of 1796-97. A fourth and final attempt by the Austrian army to relieve the siege of Mantua w… Read More
2023-05-09 16:00
Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943) was a Russian pianist and composer best known for his piano concertos and symphonies. He overcame an early ravaging by critics and several years of depression… Read More
2023-05-09 08:58
The Battle of Arcole (15-17 November 1796), or Arcola, was a three-day battle fought between Napoleon Bonaparte's French Army of Italy and an Austrian army under Jzsef Alvinczi. Part of Napo… Read More
2023-05-08 09:04
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was a German organist and composer whose work is today regarded as amongst the finest of mature baroque music (c. 1600-1750). More famous as an organist tha… Read More
2023-05-04 16:04
The emperor Aulus Vitellius (r. 69 CE) had never wanted to be Rome's emperor. Aulus was from a family of court flatterers to the first Caesars, and when his friend Nero (r. 54-68 CE) was dea… Read More
2023-05-03 16:01
The Battle of Castiglione (5 August 1796) was one of the most important battles of Napoleon's Italian Campaign of 1796-97. After laying siege to the vital fortress of Mantua, General Napoleo… Read More
2023-05-03 08:55
Ptolemy II Philadelphus ("The Sibling Loving", r. 282-246 BCE) was the second ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He consolidated the kingdom conquered by his father Ptolemy I and presided over… Read More
2023-05-02 16:03
The Battle of Lodi (10 May 1796) was a minor, yet important, engagement during Napoleon's Italian Campaign of 1796-97. Although the battle itself held little military significance, victory a… Read More
2023-05-02 09:00
The British Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) brought innovative mechanisation and deep social change. The process saw the invention of steam-powered machines, which were used in factories i… Read More
2023-05-01 09:00
Galla Placidia (388-450 CE), the future empress, was the half-sister of the Westen Roman emperor Flavius Honorius (r. 395-423 CE), and the daughter of Theodosius the Great (r. 379-395 CE). S… Read More
2023-04-28 08:58
Isabella of France (c. 1292-1358) was the queen consort of Edward II of England (r. 1307-1327). After heading a coup to overthrow her husband, she ruled as regent for their young son, Edward… Read More
2023-04-27 09:03
The French Expedition to Egypt and Syria (1798-1801), led by Napoleon Bonaparte, aimed to establish a French colony in Egypt and to threaten British possessions in India. Despite initial Fre… Read More
2023-04-26 09:10
Romani is an Indo-European language, belonging to the Indic subbranch which includes Sanskrit and Hindi. Because of the Romani diaspora throughout Europe and West Asia, it developed in close… Read More
2023-04-25 16:00
Homo rudolfensis is an early human species that lived in East Africa between c. 2.5 and 1.8 million years ago. It is known from a handful of skull, jaw and teeth fragments that remind altern… Read More
2023-04-24 09:03
Roman education had its first 'primary schools' in the 3rd century BCE, but they were not compulsory and depended entirely on tuition fees. There were no official schools in Rome, nor were t… Read More
2023-04-21 08:53
Cerberus (also spelt Kerberos) is a vicious three-headed dog in Greek mythology, who guards the entrance to the underworld. He allowed the souls of the dead to enter Hades but prevented the… Read More
2023-04-20 16:02
The Norse may have ruled parts of northern Wales in the early 11th century, specifically in Anglesey and Gwynedd, though the degree to which is unclear. Old Norse had relatively little impac… Read More
2023-04-19 15:58
Vulcan or Volcanus was the Roman god of fire and forge, the equivalent of Hephaestus from Greek mythology. The son of Jupiter and Juno, he was the special patron of blacksmiths and artisans… Read More
2023-04-19 09:06
The Italian campaign of 1796-1797, waged by a young Napoleon Bonaparte, was a decisive campaign in the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802). It led to the defeat of Austria, the beginning o… Read More
2023-04-18 16:00
Chiron (also spelt Cheiron) is a wise centaur (half-man, half-horse) in Greek mythology, who was a friend and tutor to many legendary Greek heroes, including Achilles and Jason. Chiron's par… Read More
2023-04-18 09:00
The War of the First Coalition (1792-1797) was a continent-spanning conflict in which a coalition of European powers, including Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, Spain, an… Read More
2023-04-17 09:00
The steam engine developed by the Scotsman James Watt (1736-1819) from 1769 was much more efficient in terms of power and fuel consumption than earlier models, and it significantly increased… Read More
2023-04-13 16:00
Mount Sinai (Hebrew: Har Sinay, Arabic: Jabal Musa, "mountain of Moses") is a holy site for the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. It has traditionally been located… Read More
2023-04-13 09:01
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859) was a British engineer and a key figure of the British Industrial Revolution (1760-1840). Brunel masterminded the Great Western Railway from London to Bri… Read More
2023-04-12 16:03
Silenus (also spelt Silenos) is a rustic god of the forest, drunkenness and wine-making in Greek mythology. He is best known as the companion and foster father of the god Dionysos. Silenus i… Read More
2023-04-11 09:01
Plato (l. c. 424/423 to 348/347 BCE), the Greek philosopher whose works have significantly shaped Western thought and religion, is said to have initially been a poet and playwright and, even… Read More
2023-04-10 09:00
Plato's Euthyphro is a Socratic dialogue on the concept of piety whose meaning and purpose continue to be debated. In reading the work only as a serious inquiry into the definition of an abs… Read More
2023-04-06 09:11
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan (1762-1833) was a French general who held significant commands in the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815). He won a major victory… Read More
2023-04-05 16:00
Iris is the goddess of rainbows and an important messenger between the gods and humans in Greek mythology. She was most commonly portrayed as the personal messenger of Hera. Iris was the dau… Read More
2023-04-04 16:00
Enki's Journey to Nippur (c. 2000 BCE) is a Sumerian origin myth explaining the creation of the temple at Eridu by the god Enki and how musical instruments were ordained for use in festivals… Read More
2023-04-04 09:00
The Battle of Fleurus (26 June 1794) was the climax of the Flanders Campaign of 1792-95 and was one of the most decisive battles in the War of the First Coalition (1792-1797). A French victo… Read More
2023-04-03 16:00
Plato (l. 424/423 to 348/347 BCE) is the pre-eminent Greek philosopher, known for his Dialogues and for founding his Academy in Athens, traditionally considered the first university in the W… Read More
2023-04-03 09:00
Romani is an umbrella term used to describe a diverse ethnolinguistic group of people with a historical presence in Europe and West Asia. The historically common term 'Gypsy' is based on the… Read More
2023-03-31 16:00
A Praise Poem of Lipit-Estar is a Sumerian praise song honoring Lipit-Estar (also known as Lipit-Ishtar, r. c. 1870 to c. 1860 BCE), the fifth king of the First Dynasty of Isin, best known f… Read More
2023-03-30 09:00
The Battle of Tourcoing (17-18 May 1794) was a major engagement in the War of the First Coalition, the first phase of the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802). It saw an army of the French… Read More
Women And The Crusades
2023-03-30 07:00
Between the 11th and 16th centuries, the idea of 'crusading' was dominant in Europe. Helen J. Nicolson's new book reminds us that crusading during this time had a much broader implication th… Read More
2023-03-29 16:00
The Horae (Horai, sing. Hora) were the personification and goddesses of the seasons and the hours and, later on, were regarded as goddesses of order and justice in Greek mythology. They were… Read More
2023-03-29 09:00
The Renkioi Hospital, was a complex of innovative prefabricated buildings designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for use during the Crimean War (1853-56). Brunel had been moved by the heavy cas… Read More
2023-03-28 09:00
Western astrology refers to a form of divination based on the motion of astronomical objects such as stars or planets. The belief that astronomical objects are divine or influence events on… Read More
2023-03-27 15:55
The French Revolution (1789-1799) sought to dismantle the oppressive society of the old regime and build a new world based on the principles of "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". This push for… Read More
2023-03-27 08:58
Mesopotamian education was invented by the Sumerians following the creation of writing c. 3500 BCE. The earliest schools were attached to temples but later established in separate buildings… Read More
2023-03-24 17:00
Uranus (also spelt Ouranos) is the personification of heaven and the sky in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Caelus. Gaia (Earth) gave birth to Uranus and chose him to be her equal… Read More
2023-03-24 10:00
The electrical telegraph was invented in 1837 by William Fothergill Cook (1806-1879) and Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875) in England with parallel innovations being made by Samuel Morse (1791… Read More
2023-03-23 16:59
David Ingram was an Elizabethan explorer who famously walked over 3500 miles from Veracruz to New Brunswick in 1568-9. In 1567, Ingram had sailed down the Thames on the flagship Queen Elizab… Read More
2023-03-23 09:54
Join World History Encyclopedia as they sit down with John Spurling to talk about his new book of Greek mythology retellings Arcadian Days, published by Pegasus Books. [image:17190] Ke… Read More
2023-03-22 10:06
In his epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the Greek poet Homer (c. 750 BCE) told the story of the Trojan War, a ten-year siege of the city of Troy by an alliance of Greek city-states. Tr… Read More
2023-03-21 09:54
The Hymn to Nungal (c. 2000-1600 BCE) is a Sumerian poem praising Nungal, the goddess of prisons and rehabilitation (also associated with the underworld), as well as the prison house she pre… Read More
2023-03-20 09:57
The Franks were a Germanic people who originated along the lower Rhine River. They moved into Gaul during the Migration Age, where they established one of the largest and most powerful kingd… Read More
2023-03-17 17:00
The Home of the Fish is a Sumerian poetic monologue, most likely from the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE), in which the speaker tries to coax various fish into a newly built home. The meaning… Read More
A History Of Ottoman Libraries
2023-03-17 07:00
A History of Ottoman Libraries is a timely research that acknowledges the gap in Anglophone scholarship on Ottoman intellectual history. Part of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies series from A… Read More
2023-03-16 17:00
Fashion and dress in Mesopotamia clothing, footwear, and accessories was not only functional but defined one's social status and developed from a simple loincloth in the Ubaid Period (c. 5… Read More
2023-03-16 10:03
Gaia (also Gaea or Ge) is a primordial goddess and the personification of the Earth in Greek mythology. Gaia emerged from Chaos and is considered the supreme or mother goddess by immortals a… Read More
2023-03-15 10:00
Inanna and Ebih is a Sumerian/Akkadian poem attributed to Enheduanna (l. 2285-2250 BCE), daughter of Sargon of Akkad. The work's original title is Inninmehusa ("Goddess of the Fearsome Power… Read More
2023-03-14 18:07
Horace's Epodes is a book of 17 poems, published around 30-29 BCE. It contains many of the earliest poems of Quintus Horatius Flaccus, better known as Horace (65-8 BCE); some were written be… Read More

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