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1.4 Basic elements of SharePoint

Dear freiends,

Before taking a deep dive in Sharepoint, technology lets us understand some of the key terms that make us SharePoint understanding easier: 

1.3 Basic elements of SharePoint

Content Management System: Content is a piece of digital data, which become information, for various users according to their needs. Content can be in any form Document, images, pictures, sound, video, email, Web Pages, websites, etc. Content management system enables the flow and editing of the content in user-friendly approach.
In precise “Content management system enables to create, edit and publish data, constrained with a set of rules, validations and workflow that ensure validated content”.
Key Features of CMS are:
1.       WYSIWYG [What you see is what you get]: The editor displays the content as final output, being viewed by user.
2.       Customization: CMS enables to customize the user requirements and accommodate them rather than using the default settings.
3.       Rich Multimedia Support: Support various types of files, web pages, web content to be published.
4.       Search: Search of various data types and content types on the basis of various keywords
5.       Workflow: approving and authorizing the content in user defined steps.

Document Management System: Document is the digital data stored in form of word, excel, PowerPoint, PDF format. DMS enables users to create, store, manages expiry and retrieval of documents with ease.
Key Features of DMS are:
1.       Meta data: The documents are being stored with keywords, which enable to make document searching easier.
2.       Capture: Enable to store the scanned documents in the form of images /documents.
3.       Security: Documents being created are secured on the basis of user roles and rights
4.       Integration: Integrating various external systems to document management system, so that documents can be shared easily.
5.       Workflow: approving and authorizing the document in user defined steps.
Record Management System: Record is the set of interrelated piece of information related to entity. Record management system enables creation and editing of records from its origination until its disposal. Simple example of records in an organization could be employee information, personal details, Birth Certificate, etc. 
Key Features of RMS are:
1.       Sorting/Indexing: The Records being stored are sorted/indexed on fields.
2.       Normalization: Removing redundant records and storing unique information
3.       Security: Providing the secure user roles and rights for the records to be viewed and created
4.       Workflow: Defining the flow of records on the basis of users rights
5.       Notification: sending alerts to users, when the records are being created, stored, archived, or deleted.
It is very difficult to provide the exact distinction between all three systems, as there exists a very thin line between all three.
A table given below provides the key features

Multiple website Support
Content Type Management
User Interaction
Content Page Creation\Edit\Delete
Folder Structure

IIS: Internet information Server is the Web server created by Microsoft. The latest version of IIS 7.0 has modular architecture. The modules act as individual features that the server uses to process requests. The modules present are:
  1. HTTP – perform tasks specific to HTTP in the request-processing pipeline, such as responding to information and inquiries sent in client headers, returning HTTP errors, and redirecting requests.
  2. Security – perform tasks related to security in the request-processing pipeline, such as specifying authentication schemes, performing URL authorization, and filtering requests.
  3. Content– perform tasks related to content in the request-processing pipeline, such as processing requests for static files, returning a default page when a client does not specify a resource in a request, and listing the contents of a directory.
  4. Compression – perform tasks related to compression in the request-processing pipeline, such as compressing responses, applying Gzip compression transfer coding to responses, and performing pre-compression of static content.
  5. Caching – perform tasks related to caching in the request-processing pipeline, such as storing processed information in memory on the server and using cached content in subsequent requests for the same resource.
  6. Logging and Diagnostics – perform tasks related to logging and diagnostics in the request-processing pipeline, such as passing information and processing status to HTTP.sys for logging, reporting events, and tracking requests currently executing in worker processes.
 Web application: It is website created in IIS. It is specifically configured to run as a SharePoint site. It contains at least one or more site collections. For creating web application, we need to specify content database.
Application Pool: An application pool can contain one or more applications and allows user to configure a level of isolation between different web applications. Each application pool has unique credentials on the server, so you can identify which applications are performing which actions. If one application fails, it does not affect other applications that are also running.
Site collection: SharePoint site collection is logical grouping of multiple SharePoint site. For, e.g. sites for various teams or departments of an organization can be grouped logically in one site collection.
Site: Site is a collection of web pages that is used to store information in an organized way. Site stores list of documents, discussions, events, tasks, and many other types of information. Site provides controlled access to share information among users, i.e. only authorize users are allowed to access the site.
Sub-site: A sub-site is a single SharePoint site within a site collection. A sub-site can inherit permissions and navigation structure from its parent site or these can be specified and managed independently.
List: A SharePoint lists is a collection of records related to entity like student, employees, etc. Records in lists are termed as items. A list contains columns or fields that define the item data or metadata. List in SharePoint can be created using GUI interface by defining the metadata types. Once the List is being created, it is very easy to add, edit, delete, and search items in it.
Document Library: A Document library allows users to easily store, upload, share, collaborate, and track documents. Users can also store the properties related to documents called metadata to make the documents easily searchable.
Image library: An image library allows users to easily store, upload share collaborate and track images. Users can also store the properties related to images called metadata to make the images easily searchable.
Task list: A task list in SharePoint displays a collection of tasks to be performed.
Content type: A content type is a reusable collection of metadata (columns), workflow, behavior, and other settings for a category of items or documents. Content types enable you to manage the settings for a category of information in a centralized, reusable way.
Site columns: A site column is a reusable column definition, or template, that you can assign to multiple lists across multiple SharePoint sites. Site columns are useful if your organization wants to establish some consistent settings across lists and libraries.
Custom control: Custom controls have file extension as .dll and are shared across web applications. There is no visual designer for creating custom controls hence, we cannot drag and drop custom controls.
User control: User controls are created using a designer’s tool, having file extension as .ascx. They cannot be shared across web applications.
Web part: It is an ASP. Net server control or component that can be customized by end user. Web parts combine the flexibility of user controls and custom controls. We have two types of web parts.
1.       In-built web parts – Web parts that are included in windows SharePoint services. Developers can drag these in-built web parts from web part galleries and drop them into web part zones.
2.       Custom web parts – Web parts that are created by user using visual studio is called custom web parts.
Content pages: Content pages are the ASP. Net pages that implement a master page. Content pages are normal ASP. Net pages that contain an attribute, which informs the compiler that the page should be, merged with a master page. This attribute is part of the page directive tag and is called the MasterPageFile.
Master pages: Master pages are a template that other pages can inherit from to keep consistent functionality. The pages that inherit from master pages are referred to as content pages. Master pages allow the ASP. Net developer to keep consistent, reusable, web based code (html, CSS, JavaScript, etc.) in one high level place, so the content pages can concentrate on their specific web based code. Master pages are architects with a merging concept. A content page refers to a master page and the ASP. Net framework merges the two pages together to make one page.
Page Layout: Page layout help to dictate the overall look and feel of a web page. A page layout relies on a content type to determine the kind of content that can be stored on pages that use the page layout. Page layout contains field controls and web part.
Theme: SharePoint theme represents a collection of graphics and cascading style sheets that can modify how a web site looks. Using themes, we can change font and color scheme of the sites.
Site definition: Site definitions are the foundations on which all sites and user templates are built. These are the collection of XML or ASPX files. Site definition contains information of web parts, lists, features, and navigation bars to be included in the site.
Site template: A site template provides the basic components and layout of a new site created under SharePoint. A site template contains specific design information about a site, including the list that is part of that site, web part pages used in the site, the site’s themes and borders, changes to the quick launch bar, as well as some site content (such as document libraries). Site templates are used to allow the rapid creation of websites and basic content in a SharePoint system.
Features: SharePoint feature allow for different types of elements to be incorporated into SharePoint site. We can define several element types: menu command, template, page instance, event handler, workflow, list instance, list definition, and link command.
Web solution package (WSP): A solution package is a cabinet file that can contain, site and feature definitions, web part file, templates, assemblies, and code access security policies. A solution package contains a web manifest that defines the list of features, site definitions, resource files, web part files, and assemblies to process when the solution is deployed. The directory structure within the cabinet file dictates the resulting structure on the web front-end computer. WSP solution file has  .wsp file extension. 
SharePoint designer: It is a specialized HTML editor and web design freeware for creating and modifying Microsoft SharePoint sites and web pages. It is a part of Microsoft SharePoint family of products.
SharePoint designer workflow: One of the most powerful features of SharePoint designer is the ability for non-programmers to easily create business tailored workflow to improve their business process management. SharePoint designer workflow is an easy, cheap, and somewhat limited entry point to workflow development. They are easy because most end users and administrators can become workflow developers without too much training.
Content Editor Web part:  It is a universal plugin adapter. Put it on a SharePoint page, and suddenly your page gets connected to the rest of the world. We can use content editor web part to add html/CSS/JavaScript, embed videos or widgets, formatted text, tables, hyperlinks, images, and display content from other SharePoint sites to a web part page.
Content query web part: content query is a web part displays a dynamic set of items based on a query that you build by using a web browser. You use the query to specify which items are displayed. You can set presentation options to determine how those items are displayed on the finished page.
Full fidelity viewing: Users can access and view any site, web part, or content using in full fidelity.
Rating: It is the feature of SharePoint for publishing sites. It provides users ability to rate content (of any type, lists, documents, pages on a site, and even content types) and stores that rating information in the database.
Blogs:  It is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, description of events, or other material such as graphics or video.
Enterprise wiki: An enterprise wiki is a publishing site for sharing and updating large volumes of information across an enterprise.
Tagging: The ability to tag document creates an extra search dimensions.
Recent activity: The recent activity is a helpful way to understand what that person has been working on.
My site: These are the individual mini sites and acts as a central location to view and manage all of a user’s documents, tasks, etc.
Audience targeting: The content inside lists, libraries, web parts, etc. can be targeted to appear only for the users who are members of a particular group or audience. The audience can be identified via SharePoint groups, distribution lists and security groups.
Business intelligence: It provides business intelligence feature that allows tracking key performance indicators and BI dashboards into team site.
Business data catalog: Business data catalog (BDC) integrates external data into SharePoint server. It is a one way communication.
Single sign on: It allows users to log on to a variety of applications with the single username and password.
Windows PowerShell: It is the new command line interface and scripting language.
Sandboxed solutions: It allows users to upload their own custom code solutions.
Ribbon interface: This serves as the primary command surface that we can use to interact with objects within SharePoint foundation.
ULS Logging: Unified logging service that captures and writes exceptions in log file.
Digital asset management: SharePoint server 2010 includes a new asset library specially designed for managing and sharing digital assets such as audio, video, and other rich media files.
Service application framework: It provides a platform that allows developers to build scalable middle-tier applications.
Claims based authentication: It provides a new authentication modal that supports any corporate identity system like active directory, domain services, etc.
Social networking: Connect to public MY site pages to help establish connections between colleagues with common interests.
Web Service: Web service provides methods that you can use to work remotely with a deployment of windows SharePoint services.
I will be happy to answer you queries, kindly feel free to email me at [email protected]

This post first appeared on SharePoint Is Necessity, please read the originial post: here

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1.4 Basic elements of SharePoint


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