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Introduction to Scala Programming Language-Features & Future Scope

Tags: scala language

What is Scala?

Scalable Language, Scala is a general-purpose programming Language, both object-oriented and highly functional programming language. It is easy to learn, simple and aids programmers in writing codes in a simple, sophisticated and type-safe manner. It also enables developers and programmers to be more productive.

  • Even though Scala is a relatively new language, it has garnered enough users and has wide community support – because it’s touted as the most user-friendly language.
  • Scala is influenced by Java, Haskell, Lisp, Pizza, etc. and influenced to F#, Red, etc.
  • The file extension of the Scala source file may be either. scala or.sc.
  • You can create any kind of application like a web application, enterprise application, mobile application, desktop-based application, etc.

Scala Program Example:

input:

Prerequisites for Learning Scala

Scala is easy to learn the language has minimal prerequisites. If you are someone with a basic knowledge of C/C++, then you will be easily able to get started with Scala. Since Scala is developed on top of Java. The basic programming function in Scala is similar to Java. So, if you have some basic knowledge of Java syntax and OOPs concept, it would be helpful for you to work in Scala.

♦ Introduction:

  • Scala is a general-purpose programming language. It was created and developed by Martin Odersky. Martin started working on Scala in 2001 at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL). It was officially released on January 20, 2004.
  • Scala is not an extension of Java, but it is completely interoperable with it. While compilation, the Scala file translates to Java bytecode and runs on JVM (Java Virtual machine).
  • Scala was designed to be both object-oriented and functional. It is a pure object-oriented language in the sense that every value is an object and functional language in the sense that every function is a value. The name of Scala is derived from word scalable which means it can grow with the demand of users.

Why Scala?

Scala has many reasons for being popular among programmers. Few of the reasons are:

  • Easy to Start: Scala is a high-level language so it is closer to other popular programming languages like Java, C, C++. Thus it becomes very easy to learn Scala for anyone. For Java programmers, Scala is more easy to learn.
  • It contains the best Features: Scala contains the features of different languages like C, C++, Java, etc. which makes it more useful, scalable and productive.
  • Close integration with Java: The source code of the Scala is designed in such a way that its compiler can interpret the Java classes. Also, its compiler can utilize the frameworks, Java Libraries, and tools, etc. After compilation, Scala programs can run on JVM.
  • Web-Based & Desktop Application Development: For the web applications it provides support by compiling to JavaScript. Similarly, for desktop applications, it can be compiled to JVM bytecode.
  • Used by Big Companies: Most of the popular companies like Apple, Twitter, Walmart, Google, etc. move their most of the codes to Scala from some other languages. reason being it is highly scalable and can be used in backend operations.

Where we can use Scala?

  • Web applications
  • Utilities and libraries
  • Data streaming with Akka
  • Parallel batch processing
  • Concurrency and distributed application
  • Data analysis with Spark
  • AWS lambda expression
  • Ad hoc scripting in REPL etc.

In Scala, you can create any type of application in less time and coding whether it is web-based, mobile-based or desktop-based application. Scala provides you powerful tools and API by using which you can create applications. Here, you can use a play framework which provides a platform to build web application rapidly.

Comparison Between Scala and Java

There is a simple question that every developer should ask, why should he/she go for Scala instead of java?  The following comparison will help you make your decision:

Java Scala
Complex syntax Simple syntax
Rewriting is needed Rewriting is not required
Dynamic in nature Statically-typed
No assurance of bug-free codes Assurance of lesser defects

Scala and Java are two of the most important programming languages in today’s world. Though there are a lot of similarities between the two, there are many more differences between them.

Scala, when compared to Java, is relatively a new language. It is a machine-compiled language, whereas Java is object-oriented.  Scala has enhanced code readability and conciseness. It has the facility to work in a multi-core architecture environment. The code that is written in Java can be written in Scala in half the number of lines.

Comparison Between Scala and Python:

Python is a high level, interpreted and general-purpose dynamic programming language that focuses on code readability. Python requires less typing, provides new libraries, fast prototyping, and several other new features.
Scala is a high-level language.it is a purely object-oriented programming language. The source code of the Scala is designed in such a way that its compiler can interpret the Java classes.

Below are some major differences between Python and Scala:

PYTHON SCALA
Python is a dynamically typed language. Scala is a statically typed language.
We don’t need to specify objects in Python because it is a dynamically typed Object Oriented Programming language. We need to specify the type of variables and objects in Scala because Scala is statically typed Object Oriented Programming language.
Python is easy to learn and use. Scala is less difficult to learn than Python.
Extra work is created for the interpreter at the runtime. No extra work is created in Scala and thus it is 10 times faster than Python.
The data types are decided by it during runtime. This is not the case in Scala that is why while dealing with large data process, Scala should be considered instead of Python
Python’s Community is huge compared to Scala. Scala also has good community support. But still, it is lesser than Python.

Features of Scala

  • Object-oriented Programing Language: Scala is both a functional Programming Language & an object-oriented programming language. Every variable & value which is used in Scala is implicitly saved as an object by default.
  • Extensible Programming Language:

Scala can support multiple language constructs without the need of any Domain Specific Language (DSL)Extensions, Libraries, and APIs.

  • Statically Typed Programming Language: Scala language binds the Datatype to the variable in its entire scope.
  • Functional Programming Language: Scala language provides a lightweight syntax for defining functions, it supports higher-order functions, it allows functions to be nested.
  • Interoperability:

Scala compiles the code using the scala compiler and converts code into Java Byte Code and Executes it on JVM.

These were the Features of Scala language and let us get into a few of the frameworks of Scala that are capable to support.

Frameworks of Scala:

Akka, Spark, Play, Neo4j, Scalding are some of the major frameworks that Scala language can support.

  • Akka is a toolkit on runtime for building highly concurrent, distributed, and fault-tolerant applications on the JVM. Akka is written in Scala language, with language bindings provided for both Scala and Java.
  • Spark Framework is designed to handle, and process big-data and it solely supports Scala language.
  • Play framework is designed to create web applications and it uses Scala in the process in order to obtain the best in class performance.
  • Scalding is a domain-specific language (DSL)in the Scala programming language, which integrates Cascading. It is a functional programming paradigm used in Scala which is much closer than Java to the original model for MapReduce functions.
  • Neo4j is a java spring framework supported by Scala language with domain-specific functionality, analytical capabilities, graph algorithms, and many more.

These were the popular Frameworks supported by Scala.

Scope for Scala

Scala is the miracle of the 20th century in multiple streams. It has seen astounding growth since day one and it is for sure it is one of the programming languages which is in higher demand. The stats below explain more about the scope of Scala in the near future.

The chart below describes the permanent jobs and Contract-based jobs available based on the knowledge of Scala Programming Language.

So, with this, we come to an end of this What is Scala language.

I hope we sparked a little light upon your knowledge about Scala, its features and the various types of operations that can be performed using Scala.

#Last but not least, ask for help!

The post Introduction to Scala Programming Language-Features & Future Scope appeared first on Prwatech.



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Introduction to Scala Programming Language-Features & Future Scope

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