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Micro and Macro Shock Hazards

Patient Safety against Electricity: Hospitals are facing the problem of creating a safe electric environment for the care and comfort the patients. The main problems encountered are electric shock, burns and fire hazards, which results from the care less use of electricity. Shock resulting from electric power is a common experience. Electric current can flow through the human body either accidentally or intentionally. Electric currents are used deliberately in the subsequent cases.

a. For the dimension of respiration rate by impedence method
b. For therapeutic and surgical purpose
c. When taping signals like ECG and EEG

Accidentally electric current can pass through the human body, are due to defect of the equipment or due to defect in design, and are due to defect of the equipment or due to defect in design.

Electric Shock Hazards:

Hazards because of electric shock are additionally connected with types of equipments other than that used for healing. There are two circumstances which represent dangers from electric shock. They are gross shock and micro current shock. An electric shock in the person with any cause of voltage is sufficiently high to cause adequate current passing through the skin, muscles or hair. The base current a person can sense is believed to be around 1 mA. The current may harm tissue or fibrillation if it is adequately high. Death caused by an electric shock is alluded to as electrocution. For the most part, currents close to 100 mA are dangerous if they go through vital parts of the body. Micro and Macro Shock Hazards are explained below.

Macro Shock:

In the case of gross shock, the current flows through the body of the subject. In the case of micro current shock, the current passes directly through the heart wall. Gross shock is experienced by the person by an accidental contact with the electrical wiring at any point on the surface of the body. Macro shock hazards are usually caused by electrical wiring failures. This type of hazard is dangerous to the patient as well as to the medical and attending staffs. Voltages of more than 50 Volts connected crosswise over dry unbroken human skin are fit for delivering heart fibrillation if they create electric streams in the body tissues which happen to go through the chest zone. Hazards because of lightning incorporate an immediate strike on people or property.

Micro Shock:

Micro shock is a more serious hazard than macro/gross shock in which the current flows directly to the heart wall and requires only less current to produce ventricular defibrillation.
When current enter the body at one point and leaves some other points, some physiological effects takes place,

a. Electrical stimulation of the excitable tissue (nerves and muscules).
b. Resistive heating of tissue
c. Electro-chemical blazes and tissue harm for direct current and very high voltage.

Type of Current
Current Rate (mA)
Physiological effect
Threshold
1 - 5
Tingling sensation
Pain
5 - 8
Intense or painful sensation
Let go
8 - 20
Threshold of involuntary muscle
Paralysis
> 20
Fibrillation
80 - 100
Ventricular and heart fibrillation
Defibrillation
1000 - 10000
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This post first appeared on Electronics And Communications, please read the originial post: here

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Micro and Macro Shock Hazards

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