The subconscious mind is termed 'Chitta' in Vedanta. Much of your subconsciousness consists of submerged experiences, memories thrown into the background but recoverable. The Chitta is like a calm lake and thoughts are like waves upon the surface of this lake and name and form are the normal ways in which these waves rise. No wave can rise without name and form.
The functions of the Chitta are Smriti or Smarana (memory), Dharana (contemplation), attention and Anusandhana (inquiry or investigation).
The mental processes are not limited to the field of consciousness alone. The field of subconscious mentation is to a much greater extent than that of conscious mentation. The mind is not conscious of the greater portion of its own activities. As man can hold in consciousness but one fact at a time, only a fraction of our knowledge can be in the field of consciousness at any one moment. Only ten per cent of mental activities come into the field of consciousness. Ninety percent of the mental activities takes place in the subconscious mind.
The faculty which accepts sense stimuli from the world of sense objects.
3,4) Manas, Buddhi (Mind, Intellect)
The thinking faculty of the mind is called Manas. In Vedanta, living organisms are said to have five sheaths, which are divided into three bodies according to their characteristics.
Annamaya (Food Sheath) which consist of the Gross body – the five organs of action, five organs of perceptionPranamaya (Vital Energy sheath) – Which consist of the five vital energy which manifests as the five vital air (Prana is mostly misunderstood as air, it is not so. Prana means life energy)Manomaya (Mind Sheath) which consist of the Subtle body – the mindVijananamaya (Intellectual Sheath) Which consist of the intellectAnanandamaya (Bliss Sheath) which consist of the Causal body
These five sheaths can be classified into three.
Food sheath + Vital Energy Sheath + Mind Sheath + Intellect
Sheath = Gross Body
Mind Sheath + Intellect Sheath (alone) = Subtle Body
Bliss Sheath = Causal Body
The Causal body, as the name suggest is the cause for the gross and subtle bodies, it may be defined as the latent tendencies which drive a man to think and thus pushes him to act. Mind here is given two names according to its function for easy understanding (manas and buddhi).
Manas can be called the objective mind or the one facing the stimuli reaching from the objects of the world outside, Buddhi can be called the subjective mind or the one facing within. The mind can be called healthy where the objective mind and the subjective mind works in harmony, or in other words when the objective mind is in doubt, it can be brought readily under the intelligent discipline of the subjective mind. It is the before mentioned latent tendencies which act as a layer between the manas and buddhi, which separates them, creating more confusions in the objective mind by the raising storms of desire, passions, and lust.
Causal Body (Vasanas) is not necessarily a negative aspect, it is the “drive” behind desires. Desires may be noble or evil.
Those tendencies or that aspect of the mind which makes an individual a prodigy, more or less - even which makes him excel in his field of activity is called Dishana
6) Dhi – Memorizing and followed by contemplation on those objects
7) Prajna – Pranja is the state of wisdom which is higher than the knowledge obtained by reasoning and inference.
8) Shemushi - The ability of to have control on desires, non-interest in objects
9) Mathi- Opinion based on knowledge (It is based on this word, the word “Matha” is born, therefore – Matha means Opinion, not religion – In Sanskrit , there is no such word as religion)
10) Preksha – Witnessing
11) Ubalabdhi – Understanding
12) Prathipath – The discriminative ability to distinguish
between dual concepts (eg: a person who checks the authenticity of diamond has a high “prathipath”)
13) Chethana – That which illumines (It is when this aspect of the mind is unhealthy, the individual has diseases like Alzheimer’s)
14) Medha – The ability to recollect
15) Sankalpa – Imagination
16) Avadhanam – Single pointed Determination
17) Charcha – Discussion within
18) Sankhya – Systematized thought development
19) Tharka – Self-answering the doubts
20) Vicharana – Arriving at conclusions based on proofs
21) Ooham – Guessing
22) Vichikitsa – Mixture of certainty and uncertainty
23) Samshayam – Doubt
24) Sandeham – Worrying over a loved one
25) Dwapara – Uncertain between dual concepts (The feeling
of platform moving when the train moves)
26) Nirnayam – Arriving at conclusions
27) Siddhantha – Systematization of knowledge (Theorizing)
28) Branthi- Misapprehension due to Non-Apprehension (Madness)
29) Angeekara – Accepting Responsibility
30) Prathishrava – Vigilance and ready to act
31) Jnanam- Desire for liberation from relative existence
32) Mukti – State not conditioned by object, time or space
33) Kaivalyam – Non perception of objects
34) Nirvanam – Liberated from relative existence
35) Shreya – That which is praised (Absolute Good)
36) Nishreyas – Immovable Shreyas
37) Amrta – Immutable state
38) Moksha – Liberating the self from the not-self
Not-Self = Body, Mind, Intellect, when the ego totally identifies with the supreme self in still moments of meditation, it is called Moksha.
39) Ananda – Effortless Abidance in the state of bliss
40) Samadhi – Transcendental State
(I beg your pardon for using a very casual kind of translation for most of the words, here each and every term mentioned has a library of suggestions)
Here, the states up to 30 are known to us and can be said as familiar but, a scientific-minded man may reject the states from 31 to 40, because he has no proof of those states which to him may or may not exist. We should see that these are subjective experiences of a human personality and to objectify such experiences through words is very difficult. Therefore, we can only give directions in which the seeker should turn his mind's full attention in vigilance so that he can come to experience these states in its fullness.
In the ancient scriptural texts of the Hindus, there are verses which gives us glimpses and which glorify this state, but more often we find that there are a number of indicative definitions than these glorifications which shows us the silent anxiety of the teacher to make the student experience this state.
Following is an example of mantras which indicate the highest state (Samadhi),
"It is not that which is conscious of the internal subjective world, nor that which is conscious of the external world, nor which is conscious of both, nor that which is a mass of consciousness, nor that which is simple consciousness nor is it unconsciousness, It is unseen by any sense organs, the mind, uninferable, unthinkable, indescribable, essentially by of the self alone, negation of all phenomena, the peaceful, the auspicious, and the non-dual, This is what is considered as the Fourth (Turiya), This is the Atman and this is to be realized.
Reference: Srimad Bhagavatham,