VNPs can be engineered by genetic and chemical protocols. Numerous modification strategies can allow the functionalization of Viral nanoparticles.
VNPs are virus based nanoparticles which can be plant, animal or bacteriophages, and can be infectious or noninfectious. Nanoscience has revolutionized the way we treat different diseases and viruses played a unique role to fulfill these challenges.
Plant viruses do not elicit immune response in humans, so these are perfect candidate for therapeutic applications. Plant viruses are also suitable candidate; because it can self-assemble around a nanoparticle in vitro and hold approx. 10 cubic nanometers of particles. Therefore, many molecules of cancer drugs can fit in plant viral nanoparticles. Many researchers have worked with the Cowpea mosaic virus, a viral nanoparticle about 30 nanometers in diameter created from a plant virus. In addition to their pathogenic side, viruses are bestowed with other functionally significant properties. For instance, viruses are intracellular replicating machineries, being able to accumulate to very high levels within the infected cell.
This accumulation takes place in the form of virus-induced natural nanoparticles called virions, which are cages of the viral genome. Notably, technology has been developed allowing the intracellular generation of viral cages not containing nucleic acids.
Viral nanoparticles can be a cure for cancer. Virus based nanoparticles in therapeutic delivery can easily attached to the nanoparticles surfaces to enable the virus cells to bond only to the cancer cells, instead of the surrounding cells. Mammalian viruses are also investigated for biomedical applications, but their main context is limited to gene delivery rather than drug delivery and imaging. Such potential in viral nanotechnology have marked the onset of various disciplines in nanoera & biomedicines.
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