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Cara Mudah Memahami Subnetting Jaringan dengan Metode Kotak (Box Method)

Subnetting merupakan teknik umum yang digunakan untuk membagi atau memecah suatu jaringan menjadi jaringan yang lebih kecil atau sederhana. Secara umum tujuan dari subnetting adalah untuk melakukan efisiensi alamat IP dan lebih mudah dalam perawatan maupun manajemen jaringan.

Metode kotak atau box method merupakan salah satu metode subnetting yang dilakukan dengan cara memvisualisasikan rincian subnet dan alamat IP ke jaringan yang lebih kecil dalam bentuk kotak-kotak sesuai dengan jumlah subnet dan host. Setiap kotak mewakili 1 subnet, sedangkan angka dalam kotak tersebut merupakan alamat host.

Setiap bagian dari subnet dalam kotak tersebut terdapat angka yang menunjukkan alamat jaringan (network Id) dan alamat broadcast (broadcast Id), sehingga untuk rentang IP yang tersedia adalah antara alamat Network Id dan Broadcast Id tersebut. Angka yang paling rendah dalam subnet tersebut merupakan Network Id sedangkan angka yang paling tinggi merupakan Broadcast Id.

Baca juga, Menghitung subnetting jaringan dengan metode lingkaran
Dengan mengarsir atau mewarnai bagian kotak, kita dapat dengan mudah memecah subnet tanpa tumpang tindih dengan alamat IP yang tidak digunakan, seperti pada gambar berikut ini.

#1 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0


Keterangan :
  • Total subnet : 1 subnet
  • Total host : 256 host
  • Host valid : 254 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/24

Jumlah Subnet Subnet Mask Net Id IP host awal IP host akhir Broadcast Id
1 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

#2 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.128


Keterangan :
  • Total subnet : 2 subnet
  • Total host : 128 host
  • Host valid : 126 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/25

Jumlah Subnet Subnet Mask Net Id IP host awal IP host akhir Broadcast Id
1 255.255.255.128 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127
2 255.255.255.128 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.1129 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

#3 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.192


Keterangan :
  • Total subnet : 4 subnet
  • Total host : 64 host
  • Host valid : 62 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/26

Jumlah Subnet Subnet Mask Net Id IP host awal IP host akhir Broadcast Id
1 255.255.255.192 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.63
2 255.255.255.192 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127
3 255.255.255.192 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.191
4 255.255.255.192 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.193 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

#4 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.224


Keterangan :
  • Total subnet : 8 subnet
  • Total host : 32 host
  • Host valid : 30 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/27


Jumlah Subnet Subnet Mask Net Id IP host awal IP host akhir Broadcast Id
1 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.30 192.168.1.31
2 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.33 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.63
3 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.94 192.168.1.95
4 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.97 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127
5 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.158 192.168.1.159
6 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.161 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.191
7 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.193 192.168.1.222 192.168.1.223
8 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.224 192.168.1.225 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

#5 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.240


Keterangan :
  • Total subnet : 16 subnet
  • Total host : 16 host
  • Host valid : 14 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/28

Jumlah Subnet Subnet Mask Net Id IP host awal IP host akhir Broadcast Id
1 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.14 192.168.1.15
2 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.16 192.168.1.17 192.168.1.30 192.168.1.31
3 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.33 192.168.1.46 192.168.1.47
4 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.48 192.168.1.49 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.63
5 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.78 192.168.1.79
6 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.80 192.168.1.81 192.168.1.94 192.168.1.95
7 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.97 192.168.1.110 192.168.1.111
8 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.112 192.168.1.113 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127
9 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.142 192.168.1.143
10 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.144 192.168.1.145 192.168.1.158 192.168.1.159
11 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.161 192.168.1.174 192.168.1.175
12 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.176 192.168.1.177 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.191
13 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.193 192.168.1.206 192.168.1.207
14 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.208 192.168.1.209 192.168.1.222 192.168.1.223
15 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.224 192.168.1.225 192.168.1.238 192.168.1.239
16 255.255.255.240 192.168.1.240 192.168.1.241 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

#6 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.248


Keterangan :
  • Total subnet : 32 subnet
  • Total host : 8 host
  • Host valid : 6 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/29

Jumlah Subnet Subnet Mask Net Id IP host awal IP host akhir Broadcast Id
1 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.6 192.168.1.7
2 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.8 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.14 192.168.1.15
3 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.16 192.168.1.17 192.168.1.22 192.168.1.23
4 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.24 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30 192.168.1.31
5 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.33 192.168.1.38 192.168.1.39
6 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.40 192.168.1.41 192.168.1.46 192.168.1.47
7 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.48 192.168.1.49 192.168.1.54 192.168.1.55
8 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.56 192.168.1.57 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.63
9 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.70 192.168.1.71
10 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.72 192.168.1.73 192.168.1.78 192.168.1.79
11 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.80 192.168.1.81 192.168.1.86 192.168.1.87
12 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.88 192.168.1.89 192.168.1.94 192.168.1.95
13 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.97 192.168.1.102 192.168.1.103
14 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.104 192.168.1.105 192.168.1.110 192.168.1.111
15 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.112 192.168.1.113 192.168.1.118 192.168.1.119
16 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.120 192.168.1.121 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127
17 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.134 192.168.1.135
18 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.136 192.168.1.137 192.168.1.142 192.168.1.143
19 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.144 192.168.1.145 192.168.1.150 192.168.1.151
20 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.152 192.168.1.153 192.168.1.158 192.168.1.159
21 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.161 192.168.1.166 192.168.1.167
22 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.168 192.168.1.169 192.168.1.174 192.168.1.175
23 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.176 192.168.1.177 192.168.1.182 192.168.1.183
24 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.184 192.168.1.185 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.191
25 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.193 192.168.1.198 192.168.1.199
26 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.201 192.168.1.206 192.168.1.207
27 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.208 192.168.1.209 192.168.1.214 192.168.1.215
28 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.216 192.168.1.217 192.168.1.222 192.168.1.223
29 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.224 192.168.1.225 192.168.1.230 192.168.1.231
30 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.232 192.168.1.233 192.168.1.238 192.168.1.239
31 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.240 192.168.1.241 192.168.1.246 192.168.1.247
32 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.248 192.168.1.249 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255

#7 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.252


Keterangan :
  • Total subnet : 64 subnet
  • Total host : 4 host
  • Host valid : 2 host valid

Contoh untuk alamat IP 192.168.1.0/30

Jumlah Subnet Subnet Mask Net Id IP host awal IP host akhir Broadcast Id
1 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3
2 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 192.168.1.6 192.168.1.7
3 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.8 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.11
4 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.12 192.168.1.13 192.168.1.14 192.168.1.15
5 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.16 192.168.1.17 192.168.1.18 192.168.1.19
6 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.20 192.168.1.21 192.168.1.22 192.168.1.23
7 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.24 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.26 192.168.1.27
8 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.28 192.168.1.29 192.168.1.30 192.168.1.31
9 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.33 192.168.1.34 192.168.1.35
10 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.36 192.168.1.37 192.168.1.38 192.168.1.39
111 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.40 192.168.1.41 192.168.1.42 192.168.1.43
12 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.44 192.168.1.45 192.168.1.46 192.168.1.47
13 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.48 192.168.1.49 192.168.1.50 192.168.1.51
14 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.52 192.168.1.53 192.168.1.54 192.168.1.55
15 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.56 192.168.1.57 192.168.1.58 192.168.1.59
16 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.60 192.168.1.61 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.63
17 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.66 192.168.1.67
18 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.68 192.168.1.69 192.168.1.70 192.168.1.71
19 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.72 192.168.1.73 192.168.1.74 192.168.1.75
20 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.76 192.168.1.77 192.168.1.78 192.168.1.79
21 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.80 192.168.1.81 192.168.1.82 192.168.1.83
22 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.84 192.168.1.85 192.168.1.86 192.168.1.87
23 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.88 192.168.1.89 192.168.1.90 192.168.1.91
24 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.92 192.168.1.93 192.168.1.94 192.168.1.95
25 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.97 192.168.1.98 192.168.1.99
26 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.100 192.168.1.101 192.168.1.102 192.168.1.103
27 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.104 192.168.1.105 192.168.1.106 192.168.1.107
28 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.108 192.168.1.109 192.168.1.110 192.168.1.111
29 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.112 192.168.1.113 192.168.1.114 192.168.1.115
30 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.116 192.168.1.117 192.168.1.118 192.168.1.119
31 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.120 192.168.1.121 192.168.1.122 192.168.1.123
32 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.124 192.168.1.125 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127
33 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.130 192.168.1.131
34 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.132 192.168.1.133 192.168.1.134 192.168.1.135
35 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.136 192.168.1.137 192.168.1.138 192.168.1.139
36 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.140 192.168.1.141 192.168.1.142 192.168.1.143
37 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.144 192.168.1.145 192.168.1.146 192.168.1.147
38 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.148 192.168.1.149 192.168.1.150 192.168.1.151
39 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.152 192.168.1.153 192.168.1.154 192.168.1.155
40 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.156 192.168.1.157 192.168.1.158 192.168.1.159
41 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.161 192.168.1.162 192.168.1.163
42 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.164 192.168.1.165 192.168.1.166 192.168.1.167
43 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.168 192.168.1.169 192.168.1.170 192.168.1.171
44 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.172 192.168.1.173 192.168.1.174 192.168.1.175
45 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.176 192.168.1.177 192.168.1.178 192.168.1.179
46 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.180 192.168.1.181 192.168.1.182 192.168.1.183
47 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.184 192.168.1.185 192.168.1.186 192.168.1.187
48 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.188 192.168.1.189 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.191
49 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.193 192.168.1.194 192.168.1.195
50 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.196 192.168.1.197 192.168.1.198 192.168.1.199
51 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.200 192.168.1.201 192.168.1.202 192.168.1.203
52 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.204 192.168.1.205 192.168.1.206 192.168.1.207
53 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.208 192.168.1.209 192.168.1.210 192.168.1.211
54 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.212 192.168.1.213 192.168.1.214 192.168.1.215
55 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.216 192.168.1.217 192.168.1.218 192.168.1.219
56 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.220 192.168.1.221 192.168.1.222 192.168.1.223
57 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.224 192.168.1.225 192.168.1.226 192.168.1.227
58 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.228 192.168.1.229 192.168.1.230 192.168.1.231
59 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.232 192.168.1.233 192.168.1.234 192.168.1.235
60 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.236 192.168.1.237 192.168.1.248 192.168.1.239
61 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.240 192.168.1.241 192.168.1.242 192.168.1.243
62 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.244 192.168.1.245 192.168.1.246 192.168.1.247
63 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.248 192.168.1.249 192.168.1.250 192.168.1.251
64 255.255.255.248 192.168.1.252 192.168.1.253 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255



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Cara Mudah Memahami Subnetting Jaringan dengan Metode Kotak (Box Method)

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