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Turning Points of the Reformation

In the early years of Luther's life, most of his time was spent at a monastery as a monk. After discovering several flaws of the Catholic Church, he decided to write the 95 theses that he nailed on the bishop's door in Wittenberg, Germany. This led to an altercation with the Catholic Church and Emperor Charles V, just after the theses was sent out to Pope Leo. The Pope demanded that there be a meeting between Martin Luther and Charles V — a trial held at the Diet of Worms.

At the meeting, Charles V threatened to have Luther put to death for stirring up strife, unless he would recant his writings. When Luther refused to recant his writings, he spoke "here I stand" to make his case against the Catholic Church. One of his books called "The Freedom of Being a Christian," Luther writes that "through faith alone we may be justified under God,"his death made sufficient for our salvation, which is neither through works or by righteousness. That would have lead to Luther being put in chains and into a prison, but hundreds of knights were there to guard him for an escape. Once Luther did escape, he would later become excommunicated at a place called the Edict of Worms, where he would be on the run and into hiding places. It would not take long for him to be easily recognized by citizens who had animosity toward him. They even burned his books at one point, but Luther would become aquainted with an inventor named Johannas Gutenberg, who is the founder of the Printing Press. It not only made copies of Luther's books but it carried out his reformation to others through written communication.

Eventually, Luther would become caught and went to prison in a city called Wartenberg, where he worked on translating the bible. He spent a lot of time in his cell translating it into German, French, and other languages across Europe. This formed a distant companionship with his successors, including John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, who helped organize the Protestant Church. John Calvin formed his own institutes that built protestant churches during the Renaissance period, when much architecture was being developed, as well as a lot of art and literature. As for Zwingli, he was more centered on Luther's theology, especially on his viewpoint of the mass. They saw that the mass was a re-representation of Christ's teachings. Instead of believing that Christ's death was made sufficient at Calvary, the Catholics were being mislead into believing that it's the literal body and blood of Jesus, as though it is the continual process of his death. Zwingli is believed to have known this even before Martin Luther did, only without starting his own movement yet.

Reform would continue across Western civilization, even with those reformers living short lives, but other people would help to establish the Protestant Church, such as John Wesley and John Knox. With the 16th century about to end, the Puritans and Pilgrims would begin to take over the Reformation in England. But much attention to the 16th and 17th centuries are given to Renaissance artists and architects. Some of those artists, including Leonardo Davinci and Michelangelo, are well known for their creative works: the "Mona Lisa" and the "Pieta." Other artists included Raphael and Donatello but these were more humanists and devout Catholics. Although Davinci and Michelangelo did religious artworks, they were also humanists — more researchers of science and botany.

 While the Renaissance built Europe's economy, it also helped people to overcome the plague with the development of medicine. So science may have been an important enhancement back then to cure that disease, as well as other diseases that have inflicted humans in the past. Enhancing science back then was vital for the human condition to survive from all of the physical ailments infecting people to living short lives. Science would develop into many different fields of study, such as biology and physics. Those subjects would often be used to study the bond between air and living organisms — how matter relates to human enzymes. But physics would start to be used in studying how the earth was made through the solar system, and science would begin developing medicine by studying the mind as a physical realm. The Renaissance would continue into the 19th century and have an impact on America. That is when psychology broke into society, and humanism began to fluctuate on how to solve the earth's stratosphere. So the Renaissance movement became logical in ways for creative people to invent things but also became illogical in studying the earth as an  integer instead of a created integer.

Even though the Reformation had ended, it expanded from England to America. Somehow, reform and the Renaissance became tied into each other, with mixed beliefs on where certain aspects of them originated from. It would depend on how people interpret some of those subjects with their intellectual being, especially in their chosen areas, whether it's art or music that came about during both movements. Much of the music that took place during those eras came from Luther, since he was a composer too. He influenced other musicians to write music, such as George Handel and Bach, both who came out of Germany. England may be known as the mother of our country, but much of the work that led to the establishment of America happened in Germany. Without the 95 theses, people would have been in dismay throughout the lands of Europe, and America would not have survived as a free nation. 

This post first appeared on The Quest, please read the originial post: here

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Turning Points of the Reformation


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