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SAP FI Certification Material



  1. Organizational Units
  • Client
    • At highest level in ERP system
    • Data entered at client level used for all organizational units
    • Each client has its own set of master data

     
  • Important organizational units in FI
  • Company code:
    • Independent legal entity
    • For external purpose

       
  • Business Area
    • For internal purpose
    • Can be used across company codes
    • Can have financial statement for each Business Area


  • Create company code steps
    • Copy co. code
    • Copies :
      • Definition (company name)
      • Global parameters (COA, Fiscal year, Co code default)
      • Tables
      • G/L a/c's
      • Account determination
    • Now edit this data
      • Address
      • Company code currency: This is company code / local currency. All other currencies are foreign currencies.
      • Language Key
      • Country key: This is home country. All other countries are foreign countries


  1. Exercise: Organizational Units


  • Copy company code
    • Tcode: EC01
    • Data : MR03


  • Change company code definition
  • Tcode: SPRO – ES- Def. – FA- Edit, copy, Del- Check co. code- Edit company code data
  • Data:
Co. codeMR03
CountryUS
CurrencyUSD
LanguageEN


  • Enter company code Global Parameters
Company codeMR03
Company1000
COAINT
Fiscal Year Variant33
Field status variant1000
Posting Period VariantMR05




  1. Variant Principle


  • Variant Principle: A 3 step method to assign properties to one / more objects
  • Steps:
    • Define variant ( K4 Fiscal year variant)
    • Determine values for the variant defined: Variant properties
    • Assign variant to objects : Assign variant K4 to object company code


  1. Fiscal Year
  • Fiscal Year Variant:
    • Define a fiscal year with posting periods
    • Fiscal year contain posting periods + Special posting periods
    • Maximum periods = 16
    • System derive period for a document from the posting date
    • Special posting period:
    • Used for yearend closing transactions. Posting date falls in last period, can post in special posting period
    • E.g.: FY with PP = 12 and special period = 4. Transaction date falls in 12th posting period can post in 4th special (16th) period.


  • Year Independent Fiscal Year Variant:
    • FYV uses same number of periods each year
    • Posting period start and ends on the same date every year
    • Can be Calendar Year .Here PP = 12 months of the year
    • Can be non calendar year
      • Here PP # 12 months of the year. PP can be from 1 to 16.
      • Need to assign end date for each posting period
      • Need to assign indicator -/+ as required
      • e.g Apr to Mar. For Jan, Feb & Mar year shift of -1 as belongs to old fiscal year


  1. Exercise: Fiscal Year
  • When is the year specific fiscal year variant used?
    • One fiscal year has fewer posting periods than others
    • Start and End dates of posting periods differ from year to year
  • Maintain a Fiscal Year Variant
    • Tcode: OB29
    • Data: FYV : 33


  • Assign Fiscal Year Variant (33) to company code MR03
    • Tcode: OB37
  • Create a FYV (Non calendar year FYV)
    • Tcode: OB29
    • Data:
FYV64
Description4 periods
Number of posting periods4 ( Each period has 4 months)
Number of special periods1
Provide necessary year shift


  • Define base currency:
    • Tcode: SAP Net weaver – General settings – Currencies – Check Exchange Rate Type


  1. Master Data:


  1. General Ledger Accounts
  • Chart of Accounts:
    • A variant that contain basic of GL a/c
    • Has a 4 character ID
    • Define properties of GL a/c like language, Length of GL accounts
    • COA assigned to a company code


  • Definition of Chart of Accounts
    • Tcode: OB13
    • Define:
      • COA key
      • Description
      • Maintenance language
      • Length of GL a/c
      • Manual / Automatic creation of cost elements
      • Group chart of account
      • Blocked / unblocked. If COA blocked, no GL a/c can be created for this COA


  • Directory of GL a/c in COA:
    • Tcode: SE38 – RFSKPL00




  • One COA can be assigned to one / more company codes (variant principle)


  • COA contain information about GL in Company code segment and COA segment
    • Co. code Segment:
      • To use one of the GL account from COA need to create a company code segment
      • Control data
      • Bank / Interest
      • Information
    • Chart of Account Segment:
      • Type / Description
      • Key word in COA
      • Information in COA


  • Balance sheet a/c
    • Balance C/F to the same a/c


  • P/L a/c:
    • Balance carried forward to retained earnings a/c and balance set to zero
    • A key is assigned to RE a/c which is the entered in the P/L statement a/c type


  • Account Group for GL a/c
    • Grouping of similar types of accounts. E.g. cash a/c, liquid funds a/c, fixed assets a/c, Expense a/c
    • Account group has a number range. For G/L accounts it's always internal number assignment
    • Account group controls the display of fields (Field status: Display/ Change ...) in the GL master (FS00)


  • Field Status
    • Field status enable control and display of GL a/c' master data fields
    • Field status ranking:
StatusField StatusRank
HideNot used1
DisplayField display only2
RequiredField required value3
Optional4


  • Reconciliation account
    • This is a vendor / customer GL a/c in COA. Its corresponding account exist in vendor / customer sub ledger
    • All postings to sub ledger posted to reconciliation GL a/c in GL
    • Reconciliation a/c type: D: Customers, K: Vendors, Assets
    • Cannot post directly to reconciliation a/c
    • Details of customer / vendor reconciliation a/c: SE38 – RFDKVZ00


  • Line Item Display
    • Show each transaction as a line in a GL a/c display
    • Line Item display not possible in following cases:
    • Reconciliation a/c (Line item display in sub ledger)
    • Revenue a/c (Sales)
    • Material Stock a/c
    • Tax a/c (Tax amount per line item checked when document displayed)


  • Open Item Management:
    • These a/c have line item display activated
    • Open Item display mandatory for a/c with offsetting entries
    • OI management used for following a/c types:
      • Bank clearing a/c
      • GRIR a/c
      • Salary clearing a/c


  • Account Currency
    • Can select company code currency / Local currency as Account currency
    • Can also select foreign currency as account currency
    • Where LC = A/C currency, can post in any currency
    • Where FC = A/C currency can post in only the FC to this GL a/c.


  • Only balance in Local currency:
    • If selected transaction figures to this a/c posted in local currency only
    • To be selected for clearing a/c like GRIR to avoid difference due to exchange rates fluctuation
    • You would set this indicator for accounts in which you do not want the system to update transaction figures separately by currency.


  • GL account creation
FS00One step centrally
FSP0COA Segment
FSS0Co. Code segment
OBY2Copy co. code segment from another company code
OBY7Copy COA Segment from another COA




  1. Customer / Vendor Accounts
  • Customer / Vendor Master Data have 3 segments
    • General data:
      • At client level
    • Company code data:
      • Any company code that wishes to do business with customer / vendor has to have a company code segment
    • Customer:
      • Sales area segment
    • Vendor:
      • Purchasing org. Segment


  • SE38 – RFBIDE10 / RFBIKR10:
    • To transfer customer / vendor master data from Source Company code to another company code


  • Can activate automatic duplication check


  • Account Group for customer / Vendor:
    • Once a customer / vendor created cannot change its a/c group in FI
    • Controls field status of customer / vendor master records
    • Controls customer / vendor number range


  • Number Range:
    • Can be internal / external
    • Each number range can be assigned to one / more account group




  • Special Customer / Vendor master record
    • These are one time customer / vendor
    • No information about customer / vendor entered in the master record
    • Customer / Vendor information entered at the time of document posting
    • Special customer / vendor master record cam be used for more than one Customer / vendor


  • Dual Control Principle
    • Can define certain customer / vendor fields in SPRO as sensitive. For e.g. vendor bank address
    • Now if these fields are changed customer /vendor is blocked for payment
    • Block removed when a second person with authorization confirms / reject such change


  1. Exercise General Ledger, Customer, Vendor


  • Copy GL Account group
    • Tcode: OBD4
    • Data:
Copy fromCopy To
SAKOCD05
ERGAE05




  • Create a GL a/c in GL a/c group AE05
    • Tcode: FS00
    • Data: 176499 (Expense a/c)


  • Display COA:
    • Tcode: SAP Easy – FA – GL – Info System – GL Reports – Master Data – GL a/c list


  • Reconciliation a/c (Vendor / Customer) contain total of sub ledger transaction figures


  • Create a/c group for customer
    • Tcode: SPRO – FA – AR/AP – CA – MD – Preparation for creating CMD – Define a/c group with screen layout
    • Data: Copy from KUNA to D05


  • Assign number range to a/c group (D05)
    • Tcode: SPRO – FA – AR/AP – CA – MD – Preparation for creating CMD


  • Create customer A/C in the account group D05
    • Tcode: FD01 / Sap Easy


  • Search term field in Vendor master record
    • Controlled by field status group
    • Search term A: Required entry so appear
    • Search Term B: Suppressed entry so not appear


  • Define sensitive fields for dual control
    • Tcode: SPRO – FA – AR/AP – Vendor a/c – Master data – Preparation for creating vendor master - Define sensitive fields for dual control


  • Confirm customer / vendor master changes (Dual control)
    • Customer: FD09
    • Vendor: FK09


  • Number Assignment
    • GL a/c: Only external number assignment
    • Customer / Vendor master Record: Can have either external / internal number assignment


  • Create a Vendor a/c group
    • Tcode: SPRO- FA- AR/AP – MD – Preparation for creating vendor master record – Define screen layout


  • Assign number range to vendor a/c group


  • Create Vendor a/c:
    • Tcode: FK01
  1. Bank Accounts
  • Bank master Record
    • Bank master record table: BNKA
    • Change to bank master record / Display of bank changes: SE38 – RFBKABL0


  • House Bank
    • House bank contain bank master data
    • Bank account information for electronic payment
    • GL a/c for each bank account in the HB


  • Bank Type:
    • In customer / vendor master record field bank type is used to distinguish different banks
    • While processing vendor invoice (MIRO/FB60) user can chose the bank to which payment will be made by APP by selecting bank type in partner bank field


  • Create Bank master record: FI01


  • Define HB: FI12


  • Create a saving a/c: FI12




  1. Document Control


  1. Document Structure
  • Document Principle:
    • A document is saved for every posting
    • Every document is identified by:
      • Document number
      • Company code
      • Fiscal Year (Tcode: FB03)


  • Document Segment
    • Document Header
    • Document Line Items (2- 999 line items)


  • Document Type
    • Tcode : OBA7
    • Document Type defined at client level & applicable for all company codes
    • Document Types : AB (Post all GL ac), DG ( Customer and GL), RV (Customer Invoice), RE ( MM billing document)
    • Document Type Controls:
      • Properties:
        • Number Range
        • Reverse Document Type
        • Authorization group
      • A/C Types Allowed:
        • Asset
        • Customer
        • Vendor
        • Material
        • GL
      • Control data:
        • Negative Postings permitted
        • Intercompany posting
        • Net document Type: system automatically deduct cash discounts from vendor invoices that are posted with this document type
      • Required during document Entry:
        • Reference Number
        • Document Header text


  • Document Number Range:
    • Can be internal / external
    • Up to a Future Fiscal Year : Beginning of next fiscal year system uses number following the last number of the current fiscal year
    • For Each Fiscal Year: System starts with a new number each fiscal year
    • A document number range can be assigned to (02) multiple document types


  • Posting Key
    • PK defined at client level & so valid for all company codes
    • PK Control:
      • D/C indicator
      • Account type that can be posted ( Customer / Vendor / GL/ Asset / Material)
      • Other Attributes
        • Whether line item connected with payment ( select where incoming / outgoing payment transactions)
        • Indicator whether PK used for entering special GL transactions
      • Maintain field status: (Field status : Suppress, Required, Optional)
        • General Data (Assignment number, Text, Invoice reference)
        • Additional a/c assignments (Cost center, PC, Sales Order)
        • Payment transactions (Due date, Value date, Payment terms, Reason code)


  • Field Status Variant
    • FSV is a Group of Field status groups ( G001, G003, G004, G005)
    • Field status group: Is a group of similar features. E.g FSG G001: general characteristic, G003: Material consumption a/c general data, additional a/c assignment etc master fields, G004 : Cost Account general data, payment transactions, additional a/c assignments etc
    • FSG assigned to GL a/c in tcode FS00 to decide field status of these GL a/c during transactions
    • FSV is assigned to a company code


  1. Posting Periods
  • Posting Period
    • PP is defined in Fiscal Year Variant
    • Usually current PP is open and all other PP close to prevent posting to incorrect PP
    • Can have as many PP open as required


  • Posting Period Variant
    • Several company codes can use the same PPV


  • Posting period check
    • PP for a document is determined by the posting date
    • PPV must contain the a/c type +
    • Other a/c types are for further control of accounts D/K/S/M.
    • Account type + must always be open if posting to be made to any other a/c type


  • Year End Closing
    • During year end 2 periods are open. Special PP for the last fiscal year and normal PP for the current fiscal year
    • E.g. FY: Apr to Mar. In Apr Special PP 13 and normal PP 1 are open




  1. Posting Authorizations
  • Tolerance Group
    • Tcode: SPRO-FA-FAGS – Document – Line Item – Define tolerance group per employee
    • Specify Upper limit for following:
      • Amount per document: Maximum permitted posting amount per document for this user group.
      • Amount per Open Item: Maximum posting amount permitted per customer or vendor item for this user group
      • Cash discount per Line Item: Maximum cash discount percentage rate which may be assigned by an employee of the user group. The percentage rate is checked during the entry, change and clearing of open items


  • Can create any number of tolerance group

     
  • Tolerance group "_____" blank applies to all user not assigned to any specific tolerance group


  1. Exercises:
  • Simple document posting
GL a/c postingFB50
Vendor InvoiceFB60
Vendor Credit MemoFB65
Customer InvoiceFB70
Customer Credit MemoFB75
Define/ Display / Copy document number rangeFBN1
Display customer line itemFBL1N


  • Button Tree: Access screen variants, A/C assignments, Held documents


  • Make the text field mandatory for GL a/c
    • At client level: GL a/c posting document type: AB. For document type AB in tcode OBA7 make the text field as required entry
    • At company code level: Find out FSV for the company code in OBY6. For this FSV in field status group G001 (General) make the text field as required. Now assign this FSG to the GL a/c in FS00


  • Define variant for open PP
    • Tcode: SPRO-FA-FAGS-Document-PP- Define variant for open posting period


  • Define which periods are open for a posting period variant
    • Tcode: OB52


  • Assign PPV to a company code
    • Tcode: SPRO-FA-FAGS-Document-PP- Define variant for open posting period


  • Create a tolerance group SUPV
    • Tcode: SPRO-FA-FAGS – Document – Line Item – Define tolerance group per employee


  • Assign tolerance group SUPV to your ID SAPUSER
    • Tcode: SPRO-FA-FAGS – Document – Line Item – Define tolerance group per employee


  1. Posting Control
  2. Default Values
  • Using editing option config screen for different views
    • Document entry: Fields hidden (for specified user) if not relevant
    • Document display: Use list viewer for different display options
    • Open Items:


  • When user log in his ID has following properties:
    • Language
    • Date format
    • Decimal notation


  • Can control:
    • Whether fiscal year is proposed when document displayed / changed
    • CPU date proposed as value date


  • Maximum exchange rate difference between exchange rate in document header and exchange rate in table TCURR. If it exceed warning display can be set


  1. Change Control
  • Document Change
  • Document header: Only text and reference fields can be changed
  • Line Item: No change can be made to amount, account and PK


  • When a document is changed following information is logged
  • Fields that was changed
  • New and Old values
  • User who made changes
  • Time and date of change

  • Display changed documents
  • Tcode : SE38 – RFBABL00


  1. Document Reversal
  • Can reverse GL, Customer, and vendor document


  • Document can be reversed by:
  • Normal reversal posting
  • Negative posting


  • Reversal Reasons:
  • The reason for the reverse posting is noted in the reversed document. The field is therefore used as information as to why a reversal was necessary. The reason for reversal also determines:
    • Whether the reverse document is allowed to have an alternative posting date
    • Whether the reverse document is to be created from negative postings


  • Documents with cleared items cannot be reversed. Reset the cleared items in FBRA

     


  1. Payment Terms and Cash Discounts
  • Terms of payment
  • Enable the system to calculate cash discount and Invoice due date. To calculate Invoice due date and cash discount system needs following information:
  • Base Line Date: Date from which Invoice due date is calculated
  • Cash discount % and Cash discount Terms


  • Terms of payment can be specified in customer / vendor master record in:
  • Company code segment
  • Sales Area segment
  • Purchase Org. segment


  • Terms of Payment defaulted:
  • FI Invoice: Entered in company code segment
  • Sales Order: Entered in Sales Area Segment
  • Purchase Order: Entered in Purchase Org. Segment


  • Credit Memos
  • Credit Memos related to Invoices:
    • Enter Invoice number in Invoice reference field under payment Tab during credit memo entry.
    • Invoice Terms of Payment copied to the credit memo
    • Invoice and credit memo due on the same date

       
  • Credit Memo not related to the Invoice
    • For credit memo terms of payment to be valid enter V in invoice reference under payment Tab

     
  1. Cross Company code Transactions
  • Cross company code transactions
  • Transactions involve 2/ more company codes. E.g.:
    • 1 company code purchase for multiple company codes
    • 1 company code pays for multiple company codes
    • 1 company code sells for multiple company codes




  • One document can be posted in one company code so in cross company code transaction system post document in both company codes
  • The documents are linked by a clearing a/c
  • There are two or more documents linked with a common reference :
    • 1st company code + 1st company code document number + Fiscal Year


  • Tax posting in cross company code transactions
  • Whole amount of tax posted to the company code of 1st line
  • If tax is to be distributed use report: SE38 – RFBUST10




  1. Exercise
  • Ensure document assignment field is not changed in tcode FB02( Restriction at company code level)
    • Tcode : SPRO – FA – FAGS – Document – Line Item – Document change rules
    • Ne w entries – Field name assignment (BSEG-ZUNOR) – Applicable for what a/c type (S/K/D/A) – Company code
  • Ensure document assignment field is not changed in tcode FB02( Restriction at client level)
    • Tcode : OBA7
  • Prerequisite for negative reversal:
    • Company code allow negative posting (OBY6)
    • Reversal reason code allow negative posting ( SPRO- FA- GL – BT – Adjustment posting – Define reason for reversal)
  • FI Document reversal : FB08
  • Reset cleared items: FBRA

     
  • Create a new terms of Payment
    • Tcode : SPRO – FA – AR/AP- BT – Incoming invoices / Credit Memos – Maintain terms of payment – New entries
Terms of paymentAC03
Customer BlankBlank
VendorSelect
Default base line datePosting date
%%%
No. of days Blank
%2%
No. of days 14
No. of days30

 
Explanation area of payment terms automatically defaulted





  • Assign terms of payments to vendors
    • Tcode: Easy – accounts – FA – AP – MR – Change – Company code data – Payment transactions

       
  • Baseline Date
    • Date system uses to calculate vendor/ customer invoice due date and cash discount amount
  • Taxes steps:
    • Create a new tax code (FTXP)
    • Assign a GL A/C to tax code to enable automatic postings (FTXP)
    • Define the tax code to be used in enjoy transaction ( OBZT, SPRO – FA – FAGS – AR/AP – BT – Outgoing invoice – Define tax code per transaction)
    • Post a customer / vendor invoice to show automatic posting

       
  • Create a new tax code
    • Tcode : FTXP
CountryGB
Tax code03
Account TypeOutput tax
Acct KeyMWS
Tax Percent20%
COAINT
Tax a/c175000

 

 
  • Configure automatic postings for cross company code transactions
    • Tcode: OBYA

       
  • Display cross company code documents
    • Tcode: Easy – Accounts- FA – AP – Document – Cross company code transactions
    • Tcode : FBU2 / FBU3 / FBU8






  1. Clearing
  2. Clearing
  • Two ways to clear OI
    • Account clearing (F-32)
    • Post with clearing


  • Documents with OI cannot be achieved

     
  • Post a customer Invoice
    • Tcode: FB70
Customer a/c Dr5000
To sales a/c5000




  • Post a customer credit memo
    • Tcode: FB75
Sales a/c Dr5000
To Customer a/c5000




  • Posting with Clearing
  • Invoice is posted to customer
  • Customer pays invoice and payment assigned to the Open Item
  • Invoice cleared with above payment & balance is zero


  • Clearing transaction creates a clearing document
  • Clearing document no line items as no account posting


  • Clearing Tcode:
  • Automatic: F.13
  • Manual: F-03


  • Automatic Clearing Program
  • Program groups items in a GL a/c where they have same entries in the following fields:
    • GL a/c number
    • Currency
    • Special GL indicator
    • Five definition criteria ( Assignment field)
  • If balance is Zero in Local currency, program clears the items
  • Account to be cleared defined in SPRO

     
  • Automatic Program does not clear following items:
    • Noted Items (Only information)
    • Statistical posting ( Same a/c both D/C posting)
    • Down Payments
    • Items with withholding tax entries

       
  • Assignment Field: Value comes from sort fields in FS00










  1. Tolerances:
  • Tolerances:
  • Rules that define acceptable differences during posting


  • Types of Tolerances:
  • Employee Tolerance Group:
    • Upper limit for posting transaction
    • Permitted payment differences

       
  • GL a/c Tolerances
    • Permitted payment differences (Clearing a/c, GRIR)

       
  • Customer / Vendor Tolerance Group provides for
    • Permitted payment differences
    • Posting residual item for payment differences




  • Tolerance Group defined in 2 steps:
  • Group Definition: Tolerance group defined by:
    • Group key
    • Company code
    • Currency code
  • The Key "___" blank is required as minimum tolerance group




  • Tolerance Group Assignment:
  • Employee Tolerance Group: Assigned to employees
  • G


This post first appeared on OM SAP, please read the originial post: here

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