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SAP General Ledger

  1. General Ledger
    FICO Summary  
DescriptionTcode
Define Group CompanyOX15
Define Company codeOX02
Edit COAOB13
Copy COAOBY7
Assign Company code to COAOb62
Define account groupOBD4
Define Retained earningsOB53
Maintain Fiscal Year VariantOB29
Assign Company code to FYVOB37
Define Posting Period VariantOBBO
Change Fiscal PeriodOB52
Assign PPV to company codeOBBP
Create number range for company codeFBN1
Define Document typeOBA7
Define document posting keysOB41
G/L a/c default settingOBU1
Define rules to change text in a fieldOB32
Maintain Field Status Variant OBC4
Assign Field status variant to company codeOBC5
Define Tolerance Group for employeesOBA4
Maximum Exchange Rate differenceOB64
Company code Global parametersOBY6
Document ChangeSE38- RFBABL00
Define Additional Local currenciesOB22
Assign Company code to CompanyOX16
Check Tax calculation procedureOBYZ
Assign Tax Procedure to Company codeOBBG
Check Access sequenceOBYZ
Define Tax code for sales & purchaseFTXP
Configure automatic (F.13) clearingOB74
GL a/c for clearing differencesOBXZ
Define Foreign Currency valuation methodOB59
Define Adjustment a/c for GRIR clearingOBYP
FI integration with COOBYB
FI integration with MMOBYC
FI integration with SDVKOA
Create GL a/c centrally FS00
Copy GL a/c from source company code to target company codeFS15
GL a/c postingF-02
Post incoming paymentsF-06
G/L a/c line item displayFBL3N
G/L a/c analysis displayFS10N
G/L a/c MANUAL CLEARINGF-03
Post outgoing paymentF-07
Change posted GL documentFB02
Display GL documentFB03
Individual document reversalFB08
Mass document reversalF.80
Post / Park / Hold GL a/c documentFB50

FV50
Display GL hold documentFB11
Copy GL a/c to company codeOBY2
Automatic a/c determinationFBKP
GL post with clearingF-04
Automatic clearingF.13
User master data settingsFB00
Reset cleared itemsFBRA
Recurring entry documentsFBD1 / FBD2 / FBD3
Display forex exchange rateOB08
Post Accruals (Prepaid expense/ Accrual Income)FBS1
Reverse accruals, if automatic reversal not selectedF.81
Cross company code documents displayFBU3
View / Change iDocWE02
GRIR a/c maintenanceMR11
Foreign Currency ValuationF.05
GRIR ConfigurationOBYC

WRX
GRIR RegroupingF.19
Carry forward of receivables / Payables in FIF.07
Balance c/f of GL a/cF.16
Define a/c group screen layout VendorOBD3
Create number range for VendorXKN1
Assign number to vendorOBAS
Delete Vendor Master dataOBR2
Maintain Terms of PaymentOBB8
Create / Display / Change Vendor masterXK01

XK03

XK02
Block / Unblock Vendor masterXK05
Post Vendor InvoiceFB60
Post Manual payment F-53
Displaying / Releasing vendor a/c balance FK10N
APPFBZP

F110
Manual clearing of vendor invoices against paymentsF-44
Display POME23N
Change POME22N
Search for POME2B
PO Based Vendor Invoice / Credit Memo / Planned delivery costMIRO
Display PO based vendor invoiceMIR4
GLPCT table report2KEE
GLPCA table reportKE5Z
AP/AR posting to PCA (One leg posting). This update table BFOD_A or BFOK_A as the case may beF.5D
Periodic data transfer from FI- AP/AR (OI) to PCA1KEK
Update PCA comparison ledger in period 02KES
Compare GL a/c's in FI with a/c in PCAKE5T
Define a/c with screen layout for customersOBD2
Create number range for customer a/cXDN1
Assign number range to customer a/cOBAR
Define alternative a/c for down paymentOBYR
Create / Change / Display customer master dataFD01

FD02

FD03

XD03

VD03
Display customer credit managementFD33
Change customer credit managementFD32
Display customer a/c balanceFD10N
Display and change customer line itemsFBL5N
Manual clearing of customer invoices against paymentsF-32
Manual clearing of customer down payments against customer invoicesF-39
Post a customer InvoiceFB70

F-22
Park customer InvoicesFV70
Post customer park invoicesFBV0
Post customer incoming paymentsF-52
Customer down payment requestF-37
Customer down paymentF-29
Display blocked SD / customer invoicesVKM1
Customer Reason codesOBBE
Reason codes tableT053R
Map reason codes to GL a/cOBXL


  1. Define Group Company
  • Tcode: OX15
  • Explanation
    • A company is an organization unit. A company can comprise one / more company codes (For which separate FS can be prepared)
    • All company codes for a company must work with same Operational COA & Fiscal year
    • Company codes can use different currencies






  1. Define Company code
  • Tcode: OX02
  • Copy company code along with all data : EC01
  • Explanation
    • Legal entity. Separate BS & PL can be maintained
    • Two options 1) Copy co. code 2) Edit co. code
    • In copy co. code all Config, tables, assignments get copied. Edit them as per need. Copy co. code 0001. In 2nd option manually configure all assignments
    • Local currency: Currency defined in company code. All accounts are managed in this currency. All other currencies treated as FC.
    • Country Key: Specifies which country to be regarded as home country. System regards all other countries as foreign countries




  1. Edit Chart of Accounts
  • Tcode: OB13
  • Copy Chart of Accounts : OBY7
  • Copy from an existing company code: EC01
  • Directory of GL Accts in COA: SE38 - RFSKPL00 / RFSKVZ00
  • Explanation
    • GL accounts created at COA and then extended to company codes in which they are used
    • Copy CAUS
    • Define : COA key, Maintenance Language (English), Length of GL acct number(1-10), Manual / Automatic creation of CE, Group COA, Blocked ( A COA that is not completed can be blocked)
    • COA grouped under account groups.
    • Acct Group control number range, Field status of GL accounts in FS00
    • Open Item Management: To be used for
      • Bank clearing acct,
      • Salary clearing acct.,
      • GRIR account
      • For these clearing accounts also select line item display
    • Only balances in local currency: Selected for clearing accounts. This avoid gain / loss due to exchange rate difference
    • If company codes intend to use cross-company code controlling, they must use the same chart of accounts.
    • For balance sheet accounts, the balance is carried forward to the same account.
    • For profit and loss accounts, the balance is carried forward to a retained earnings account and the profit and loss statement account is set to zero. A key (for example, X) is assigned to the account to which the balance is carried forward. You enter this key in the field "P&L Statement Type" in the chart of accounts segment.
    • The field status enables you to control the display and maintenance of an account's master data.
      • You can assign fields that you do not use the status Hide.
      • Fields whose values must not be changed can have the status Display
      • For fields where you must enter a value, you can define the status Required Entry.
      • Fields that can contain an entry, but are not required, can be set to Optional Entry
    • Cross company code controlling:
      • If company codes want to use cross company code controlling, they must use the same operational chart of accounts
    • Group COA:
      • If company codes use different operational chart of accounts they can have group chart of accounts for consolidated reporting.
      • The group chart of accounts must be assigned to each operational chart of accounts. After you have done this, the Group Account Number field in the operational charts of accounts becomes a required entry field.
    • Country COA:
      • Company codes use same operational COA. But they have local reporting requirements. So use country COA. Country COA GL a/c number is assigned in alternative reconciliation account no. Also since all company codes use same operational COA we can have cross company code controlling







  1. Assign Company code to Chart of Accounts
  • Tcode: OB62
  • Explanation
    • For each company code specify which COA to be used.
    • Several company codes can use same COA.
    • Operative COA : COA assigned to company code
    • Country Specific COA: COA structures as per country legal requirements
    • Group COA : COA structured as per consolidation requirements

     
  1. Define Account Groups
  • Tcode: OBD4
  • Explanation
    • Account group used to combine GL a/c's with similar functions. E.g. expenses, asset accounting, Cash etc
    • Account Group determines:
      • GL a/c number interval in FS00 for the GL A/C created
      • Fields in GL master records (Required/ optional/hidden)
      • Can configure field status for the account group by selecting it and clicking field status icon






  1. Define Retained Earnings
  • Tcode: OB53
  • Explanation
    • At the end of Fiscal year system carries P/L balance to retained earnings a/c. This account appears in BS as P/L carry forward.
    • For this you define one/more P/L statement a/c type (X, Y, Z…) & assign these PL statement a/c types to GL a/c ( retained earnings a/c) in the COA






  1. Maintain Fiscal Year Variant
  • Tcode: OB29
  • Data : K4 ( Jan to Dec)
  • Explanation
    • Sap allows up to 16 posting periods which reflect 12 months of the year & 4 special periods used for adjustments
    • Fiscal Year normally has 12 posting period & 4 special period for yearend closing transactions
    • Fiscal year can be Calendar Year ( Jan to Dec) / Not Calendar Year ( Apr to March)
    • Fiscal Year (Not Calendar Year) can be year dependent or Not year dependent
    • Year dependent fiscal year variant are used: If the start and end date of the posting periods differ from year to year. If one fiscal year has fewer posting periods than the others (shortened fiscal year)
    • SAP standard FYV : K4 ( Jan to Dec), V3 ( Apr to March)










  1. Assign Company code to Fiscal Year Variant
  • Tcode: OB37
  • Explanation:
    • This control periods in which the company code will post








  1. Define Posting Period Variant
  • Tcode: OBBO
  • Explanation:
    • Here you decide which posting period is open for posting
    • A separate variant for posting period is defined for every company code
    • One PPV can be assigned to multiple company codes
    • System derives posting period from posting date. If posting date falls in normal period can be posted in special posting period.
    • If start & end date of each period is same every year, it is year independent PPV. If the period reconcile with calendar months it is calendar year PPV else non calendar year PPV.
    • If the start & end date of period differ each year it is year dependent PPV
    • To prevent documents from being posted to an incorrect posting period, we can close certain posting periods. We can have as many posting periods open as desired. Several company codes can use the same posting period variant.
    • The account type + must be open for all periods that are supposed to be open for all other account types. However a/c type (S/D/K/M) may / may not be open






  1. Open & Close Posting Period
  • Tcode: OB52
  • Explanation:
    • Here specify which periods (Jan, Feb, Mar ...) are open for posting for each variant. There are 2 time intervals for both specify lower limit period, Upper limit period & Fiscal year.
    • First enter periods permitted for posting for all variants. Next add entries for a/c type (D, K, A...) if periods to be restricted for specific a/c's
    • Once the financial month-end close process is completed and statutory and management reports have been published, this transaction is executed a second time to close the general ledger for the period. This transaction is also used to reopen fiscal periods in the event that prior period adjustments are necessary. Once the fiscal periods are changed, the inventory accounting period must also be changed to allow posting of goods issues and goods receipts in the new fiscal period.








  1. Assign Posting Period Variant to Company Code
  • Tcode: OBBP






  1. Create number range for Company code
  • Tcode: FBN1
  • Explanation:
    • Here we create number ranges
    • Each number range specify a interval from which document numbers are selected
    • Number range can be internal / external
    • Number range assigned to document types. Doc types specified during doc. entry. Thus number range for this doc. type becomes effective for this document entry
    • Sample Doc's No. range Key: X2
    • Recurring Entry Doc: No. range key: X1
    • Transport: Interval – Transport






  1. Define document type & assign document number range
  • Tcode: OBA7
  • Explanation:
    • Create doc type for Customer, Vendor & GL business transactions
    • Specify a number range for each document type. Can use one number range key for several doc. types? Document numbers are chosen from this number range.
    • Doc. Types valid for all clients
    • Assign reverse doc. Type for each doc. type.
    • Required during doc. entry: Can specify whether Reference number / document header text are mandatory during doc. entry
  • Key Document Types:
Sub ComponentUseDefault Document Type
Asset AccountingAsset PostingAA
DepreciationAF
General LedgerJournalSA
Accounts ReceivableCustomer InvoiceDR
Customer PaymentDZ
Internal Transfer from billingRV
Payment ClearingZV
Accounts PayableVendor InvoiceKR
Vendor PaymentKZ
Goods IssueWA
Goods ReceiptWE

  • Key fields in Document Types Screen


Field Usage
Account TypesSelect account type that uses this document type. GL/CUSTOMER/ VENDOR / ASSET
Reversal Document TypeCan specify the reversal document type
Net document TypeFor vendor invoice related type document. Restrict the document type to be used only for a single customer / vendor
Inter Company postingRestrict the document type that can be used for cross company postings
Trading PartnerTrading partner value comes from vendor master. If selected in this doc. Type this value can be override
Reference NumberCan select & make reference field mandatory in this document type
Document Header textCan select & make document header field mandatory in this document type
Batch input onlyCan select & ensure document type is used only through batch
Ex. Rate for foreign crncy docs.If not specified here transaction in FC for this document types will be according to avg rate M








  1. Define Document Posting Keys
  • Tcode: OB41
  • Explanation: Posting key determine:
    • Debit / Credit Posting key
    • To which type of account(S/D/K/A) line item can be posted
    • Whether item posted as debit / credit
    • Special GL: Indicate posting key used for special GL transaction (Down Payment…)
    • Payment Transaction : Indicate that posting key is used for payment transaction
    • Field status of additional fields

       







     
  1. GL A/c default settings & layouts
  • Tcode : OBU1
  • Explanation:
    • These values are populated when enter the Tcode initially.






  1. Updating Layout for Document Entry Screen
  • Tcode: Enter the Tcode Say FB60. Now select change screen layout button – Administrator – Do the changes – Transport button





  1. Define Rules to change data / text in a field:
  • Tcode: OB32
  • Explanation:
    • Here we define what can be changed in a field






  1. Maintain Field Status Variant
  • Tcode: OBC4
  • Explanation:
    • FS Group determine what fields are available for entry during GL posting
    • Here define & edit Field status variant & Field status group
    • Document screen fields are grouped under Field status group
    • Several field status groups are grouped under Field Status variant
    • Field Status Variant is assigned to company code
    • Field Status Group determine which fields are Required/ Optional/ Hidden during document entry
    • Copy FSV 0001
    • Field status group assigned to GL a/c in FS00


Type of PostingPrimary ObjectPossible Account Assignment
Balance SheetGL AccountProfit Center
Income GL Account

Revenue element
Profit center

Profitability analysis

Revenue project
ExpenditureGL account

Cost element
Cost center

Internal order
Internal settlementSecondary cost elementCost center

Profit Center

Internal Order




  1. Assign Field Status Variant to Company code
  • Tcode: OBC5






  1. Define Tolerance groups for employees
  • Tcode: OBA4
  • Explanation:
    • Here you define various amt. limits for your employees:
    • Applies to all FI documents
    • Maximum document amt. employee is authorized to post
    • Maxi amt. employee can enter as line item in Vendor/ Customer a/c
    • Maxi cash dis. % an employee can grant in a line item
    • Can also define tolerance w/o specifying tolerance group. Leave group field blank. Valid for all employees not allocated to a group.
    • Can create as many tolerance groups as required (OBA4).
    • User id's to be assigned to the tolerance group in the next step (OB57).Every user can be explicitly assigned to a tolerance group (OB57). If a user is not assigned to any special tolerance group, then entries in the blank tolerance group are valid for him.




  1. Assign user Tolerance group
  • Tcode: OB57
  • In our example we have define blank tolerance group for company code 100. Thus all unassigned users will be able to post this company code.

     






  1. Maximum Exchange Rate Difference
  • Tcode: OB64
  • Explanation:
    • Specifications are company code dependent
    • Here we define how much the exchange rate manually entered in the document Header may differ in terms of % from the one stored in the system. If deviation occur a warning appear






  1. Check co. code settings in global parameters
  • Tcode: OBY6
  • Explanation:
    • Check important company code settings here
    • No FC diff when clearing in LC: FC documents are cleared in the LC.
    • Tax base is net value : Discount is deducted from the base amount in sales documents before calculating taxes
    • Discount base net value: Tax on sale/purchase not included in amount for calculating discount
  • Data:
Company codeCurrencyCOACredit control AreaFYVFSVPPV
1000EURINT1000K410001000


  1. Document Change
  • Display document changes for all documents: SE38 - RFBABL00
  • Create new document change rule: SPRO - Financial Accounting → Financial Accounting Global Settings → Document → Line Item → Document Change Rules, Line Item → New Entries
  • Explanation:
    • Users can change documents that have already been posted. However, based on different rules, only certain fields can be changed. These rules can either be predefined by the system or be user-specific.
    • Document header: Only the reference number and text fields can be changed
    • Line items: The system does not permit changes to the amount, the posting key, the account, or any other fields that would affect the reconciliation of a posting.








  1. Define Additional Local currencies
  • Tcode: SPRO-FA-FAGS-Co. Code- || Currencies-Define Additional local currencies
  • Tcode: OB22
  • Data
Co. codeCo. code currencyGroup CurrencyHard Currency
1000EUREURUSD


  • Explanation:
    • Here we define additional currencies for company code
    • Can define two more || currencies for a company code. Thus we can have three currencies for a company code.
    • Currency Types :
      • Group Currency: Currency Specified in the client table
      • Hard Currency: Country specific 2nd currency used in countries with inflation
      • Global Co. currency: Currency used for an internal trading partner
    • For Addl currencies define following data:
      • Currency Type: Define role of the currency. e.g.: Group currency/ hard currency
      • Exchange rate type for translation: Define which exchange rate stored in the system is used for calculating additional amount field (additional local currency). e.g.: M (average exchange rate) or any other exchange rate.
      • Base Currency: The amount in the additional currencies can be calculated based on the document currency (USD, INR...) or local currency / company code (INR).
      • Date for translation: Date on which exchange rate translation is done. Can be document date, Posting date, Translation date.
      • Valuation: Can select valuation 1 only if currency and valuation profile configured in the controlling area. Can select valuation 2 if there is profit center valuation view. Valuation 1 & 2 require two additional ledgers to store data

         
  • OB22 Explanation:
    • Company Code: Enter the four-digit identifier of the company code that you wish to configure.
    • 1st Local Currency: These fields will fill in automatically with default information based on the currency defined in the company code definition.
    • 2nd and 3rd Local Currency: As explained earlier, each company code can have two additional parallel currencies that can be used in conjunction with local currency defined for the company code
    • Curr. Type: The currency type field specifies which type of parallel currency you want to configure. The following options are available.
      • Group Currency: Group currencies are defined at the client level in table T000. Group currencies are used to enable cross-company code postings in controlling for company codes that use different company code currencies.
      • Hard Currency: Hard currencies are used for subsidiaries in countries with a lot of inflation. Hard currencies allow you to better valuate transactions in an inflationary economic environment.
    • Ex. Rt. Type: The exchange rate type determines how foreign currencies are revalued at the time of foreign currency revaluation and translation.
    • Srce Curr: Enter the source currency that the foreign currency is to be translated against. The possible entries are as follows:
      • Translation taking transaction currency as basis: This option always tries to translate the parallel curreny against the transaction currency of the document.
      • Translation Taking First Local Currency as Basis: This option always translates the parallel currency against the first local currency (company code currency).
    • TrsDte Typ: This setting is used to determine which date is used for foreign currency translations. The available options are as follows:
      • 1. Document Date: Select this option if you want the translation calculation to use the exchange rate that was In effect on the day the document was dated.
      • 2. Posting Date: Select this option if you want the translation calculation to use the exchange rate that was in effect on the posting date in the document.
      • 3. Translation Date: Select this option if you want the translation calculation to use the exchange rate that is in effect on the date of the foreign currency translation.






  1. Define Additional Local currencies for Ledgers
  • Tcode: SPRO-FA-FAGS-Co. Code- || Currencies-Define Additional local currencies
  • Explanation:
    • Since valuation 1 & 2 selected earlier, need to configure additional ledgers
    • Here we define additional currencies for company code
    • Can define two more || currencies for a company code. Thus can have three currencies






  1. Assign Company code to Company
  • Tcode: OX16





  1. Check SAP Note: SNOTE
  • Tcode: snote








  1. Change message control for posting to GL accounts
  • Explanation:
    • You can change status of system error message from error to warning or even turn off the message
  • Tcode: FA (NEW) – FAGS – DOCUMENT – DEFAULT VALUES – Change message Control for Document processing


  1. Create a Financial Statement version
  • Tcode: OB58

 


This post first appeared on OM SAP, please read the originial post: here

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