Hierapolis and Pamukkale Thermal Pools is a historic site and a remarkable natural wonders in Denizli, Turkey. It’s a ruin of an ancient Roman city built in the 2nd century BC. The ancient city of Hierapolis founded by Eumenes II, King of Pergamum during the Phrygian Era. In ancient Roman times, the area was so dense with marked large buildings constructed. Starting from the Roman Colosseum, markets, residential areas and public baths for the Roman people. The grandeur can still be witnessed today, although some have collapsed due to the earthquake.
Hierapolis and Pamukkale Thermal Pools.
Hierapolis is an ancient city located in the hot springs of classical Phrygia in southwest Anatolia. The ruins are adjacent to modern Pamukkale in Turkey and currently consist of an archaeological museum designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.
The origin of the name Hierapolis is still debated. Some believe that the name Hierapolis was taken from the temple of Hieron which was established in that place. Others think Hierapolis was taken in honor of Hiera, wife of Telephos, who had established the Attalid dynasty.
Hierapolis was handed over to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD, but was rebuilt, and reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. There are so many historical remains in Hierapolis, such as temples, churches also a Hierapolis Theater. It’s elegantly decorated with reliefs. Built around 200 BC. The theater can accommodate 20,000 visitors.
Hierapolis is quick famous as a center for the treatment of hot springs which are believed to have various healing properties. When the last king of the Attalid Dynasty almost died, he returned Hierapolis to Rome. Throughout the following century, most cities have turned from the Greek to a Roman city. At the beginning of the 1st century AD, Hierapolis hit by an earthquake. A few decades later, in the Nero time, the city almost completely destroyed by another earthquake.
The city was rebuilt in Roman style. During the next 2 centuries, Hierapolis continue to develop under Emperor of Hadrian who builds a famous theater. At the beginning of the third century, the city was given a special status called Neocoros by the emperor Caracalla which gave Hierapolis a number of privileges in the Roman legal system. Hierapolis continues to grow with a population reaching more than 100,000 people.
In the 12th century, the region was under the control of the Seljuk Konya Sultanate. Hierapolis was noted to have been struggled during the Crusades and eventually began to be abandoned towards the end of the 14th century. At the beginning of the 16th century, Hierapolis was once again struck by an earthquake, but in the nonexistence of residents inhabiting the city, the damage never repair.
The ruins of the Hierapolis are almost untouched until the excavations were carried out in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hierapolis was first excavated by German archeologist Carl Humann (1839-1896) during June and July of 1887.
Hierapolis is known as the Holy City because there are many religious temples. It is estimated, the number of Jews is around 50,000 people. Christians began to move to Hierapolis from the first half of the 1st century AD In the 4th century AD, Christianity almost completely eradicated pagan beliefs that had once flourish in this city. The holy cave, Plutonium, fill with stones by Christians. The bathroom did not miss being change to a Christian basilica.
Hierapolis Pamukkale Theatre.
The construction began in the 62nd century AD after the earthquake in the 60th century AD in the Flavius era. However, it was not complete in the Hadrian era and was only complete in the Severus Era in 206 AD. After the earthquake at 60 AD, the theater at Hierapolis was constructed on the hillside. This theater is one of the best results of Roman theater decorations.
Temple of Apollo.
The temple locates in a religious cave called Plutonium, which is a small cave that is only enough for one person to enter. Inside this cave, there is carbon dioxide which is quite dangerous and arises because of underground geological activity.
It is the center of oldest religious of the local population where Apollo met Goddess Kybele. This temple became the main temple during the Hellenistic period which included temples for Cybele, Artemis, Pluto, and Poseidon. Temple of Apollo considers the founder of the city of Hierapolis, which this is where the temple of Apollo was built. The style of the building came from Hellenistic times.
The Necropolis is a great heritage of Hierapolis. It is one of the largest funeral sites in Turkey. The site can be seen on the road leading to Laodicea – Colossae to the south and to Tripolis – Sardis to the north.
Limestone and marble are adopted to build this site. It’s a Necropolis since the Late Hellenistic era until the early Christian era with sarcophagi, house tomb types, cemeteries on hills and monuments. There are also 300 inscriptions that have been translated and published.
The wall was built in accordance with the law issued in 396 AD. It’s similar to other cities of the Roman Empire with walls on the north, south and east sides of the city. A total of 24 square shaped towers were built along this wall. There are 4 entrances, two monumental gates, and two small gates. The largest gate locates on the main road. Unfortunately, most of the city walls were destroyed by earthquakes.
Martyrium of St.Philipp Hierapolis.
It is an octagonal building measuring 20 m x 20 m. Martirum was built in the late 4th and early 5th century to praise St. Philip was killed here.
The Cotton Castle-Pamukkale Thermal Pools.
Pamukkale is on the Travertine Slope area with 20 meter high cliffs along the plateau of the Cokelez mountain range. The valley of the waterfall has a height of about 200 meters above the Curuksu plain which extends 6 kilometers around the village of Karahayit, Pamukkale.
How was Pamukkale formed? Pamukkale forms by the wondrous natural phenomena. Initially thousands of years ago, Pamukkale was formed by an earthquake. Hot springs that contain calcium carbonate grow out and evaporate. It continues until the location of the discharge of hot water accumulates a layer of white limestone and resembles like a frozen waterfall. It is something causes the structure of lime layers that seem like white cotton piles.
Pamukkale, which is about 19 kilometers north of Denzil, has a natural landscape whose springs have fiber from the earth. Pamukkale has been used as Spa water since the Romans build warm holy Spa water in the form of Hierapolis in the spring. The Spa water Pool filled with lots of marble taken from the temple of Apollo, Rome.
The beauty of Pamukkale Turkey lies in the white travertine pool around it, lush green scenery below, and snow-capped mountains. Travertines are limestone or mountain of limestone formed from deposits of calcium carbonate. This white rock formed naturally for thousands of years ago. From a distance, Travertines looks like a multilevel pond with hot water in it. The beauty of travertines makes this place always crowded with visitors.
Antique Pool Pamukkale/Cleopatra Pool.
This antique Pamukkale thermal pool is a heated water bath which is said have been used since the time before. The stories said that Cleopatra even bathed here. Tourists can swim and enjoy the antique pool. The pool is not too wide, about 15 x 15 meters. The depth is approximately at 1-1.5 meters. Some large rocks bank in the middle and in a nook with small plants growing in the middle of the pool.
These naturally heated water pools have been said to have been able to cure diseases for thousands of years ago. With temperatures ranging from 35-100 degrees Celsius and contain mineral water in it, tourists are often used to soak and do therapies that are believed to treat various diseases.
Hierapolis and Pamukkale Thermal Pools give various enchantments. Seeing the pools with bluish-colored water blended with the pools and white rocks like snow mountains as viewed from a distance. While the ruins of the glorious Hierapolis still preserve many legends in the past.
Also.read Eternal Ashes In Campania-1: The Lost City.
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