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Know the Tracheostomy Procedure, Indications and Risks

Tracheostomy is a Procedure performed on emergency situations or in people with severe disease. The main purpose of this procedure is to maintain the airway. But in addition to its benefits, this procedure also has the risk of complications, during or after a tracheostomy is executed.

Tracheostomy is also known as stoma. Health problems that require this procedure are generally associated with the Respiratory tract. With the goal of making the patient can breathe properly. This procedure is usually performed in a medical emergency or in certain diseases that cause airway obstruction or respiratory failure. This condition is a serious condition that can be life threatening if not handled immediately, therefore tracheostomi done to keep the breathing process can run well to support the survival.

Know the Tracheostomy Procedure, Indications and Risks

The opening of the Throat Trunk

Tracheostomy is an opening or opening operation of a hole performed on the windpipe or trachea, through an incision on the skin of the front of the neck, with the help of general anesthesia, for direct access to the breathing tube. In emergency cases, general anesthesia often does not get done so the doctor will give local anesthesia in the neck area to be dissected. After the anesthesia works, the doctor will begin to dissect the neck area under the Adam's apple and the surgical process is done until the tracheal cartilage part of the ring. Once open, the hole will be installed respiratory tube.

The respiratory tube is then inserted into a hole made in the throat, just below the vocal cords. Then air will enter through the tube, toward the lungs. Patients will then breathe through this tube, not through the nose or mouth. If necessary, the breathing tube may be connected to an oxygen cylinder or a ventilator machine. These holes can be temporary or permanent. This surgery should be performed by an expert physician.

Conditions that require Tracheostomy

Some health conditions that require a tracheostomy procedure, among others:
- Congenital or birth defects of the congenital airways
- Injuries in the respiratory tract due to inhalation of corrosive material
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Diaphragmatic dysfunction
- Severe infection
- Wound on the larynx / laryngectomy
- Injuries on the chest wall
- Burns or major surgery on the face
- Conditions that require prolonged respiratory or ventilator assistance such as paralysis.
- Blockage of respiratory tract by foreign body or tumor.
- Sleep apnea, due to a blockage of the airway.
- Anaphylactic shock
- Muscle paralysis used to swallow
- Severe mouth or neck injury
- Paralysis of the vocal cords
- Cancer of the neck

In addition to facilitating breathing, tracheostomy is also performed for the following reasons:
- Create alternate breathing paths that surround or through blocked paths so that oxygen can still reach the lungs
- In order to more easily clean the respiratory tract and also as a channel of discharge of fluid originating from the lungs.
As a link between respiratory organs and long-term mechanical respiratory (ventilator) aids.

Risk of Complications
Despite leaving a small scar when the tube is removed (on a temporary tracheostomy), the patient through this procedure is inseparable from the risk of tracheostomy complications that need to be aware of:
- Damage to the thyroid gland present in the neck
- The presence of scar tissue in the trachea
- Leak or lung failure
- Infection
- Bleeding
- The air is trapped in the surrounding tissue or in the chest cavity.
Impaired swallowing and vocal function.

There are also some less common complication risks, but still need to be aware of, such as damage to the larynx (vocal cords) or airways, and lead to permanent sound changes and injury or erosion of tissue around the respiratory tube.
Doctors will usually adjust the tracheostomy procedure to the patient's condition and continue monitoring the results of the oximeter and the EKG throughout the procedure. This procedure is uncomfortable for the patient. In some cases after plugged pipes in the trachea are often difficult or even unable to speak or swallow, however indications of tracheostomy measures aim to prevent fatal complications from continuing. In addition to conventional tracheostomy surgery, there is now a technique of inserting breathing tubes through a less invasive neckline fat tissue. However, the action of tracheostomy through the fat tissue (percutaneous) is at high risk for complications in obese people, neck and throat structure disorders, children and thyroid enlargement.
After mounting the breathing tube in the hole made in the trachea, patients generally need three days before getting used to the presence of breathing tubes in their neck. For long-term users, the doctor will tell you how to care and clean the breathing tube and do not forget to routinely check the condition according to the doctor's advice.

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Know the Tracheostomy Procedure, Indications and Risks


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