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The History of Flat Earth

Tags: earth star

From the beginning of recorded history, and for thousands upon thousands of years, cultures across the entire world all believed the Earth was flat.  Their various cosmologies and cosmogonies differed in slight ways but their overall geographies and astronomies were incredibly consistent and in fact virtually identical.  The Earth was a stationary plane void of any motion or curvature, flat across its entire expanse except of course for hills, mountains and valleys.  The North Pole was the magnetic  mono-pole center-point of the flat Earth with Polaris, the North Pole star situated directly above.  Polaris was the only motionless star in the heavens with all the other constellations revolving perfect circles over the Earth every night.  The stars were divided into two categories known as the fixed stars and the wandering stars.  The fixed stars were so-called because they were observed then as we can observe today to stay fixed in their constellation patterns night after night, year after year, century after century, never changing their relative positions.  The wandering stars, what are today referred to as "planets," were so-called because they were observed then as we can observe today to wander the heavens taking their own unique spirograph-like patterns making both forward and retrograde motions over and around the Earth during their cycles.



The Sun and Moon were both of equal size and they too revolved over and around the motionless Earth as immortalized in the Chinese Yin Yang symbol.  The Sun and Moon were much closer to Earth than supposed nowadays and each shined with their own unique opposite lights, the Sun's being warm, golden, drying, preservative and antiseptic, and the Moon's light being cold, silver, damp, putrefying and septic.  The Sun and Moon as though connected to a magnetic maypole made alternating spiral journeys over and around the Earth every year.  The Sun began its journey at the Tropic of Capricorn at the Winter Solstice where it made its fastest and largest circle over the Earth.  For the next three months every day the Sun slightly narrowed its path and slowed its speed until by the Spring Equinox the Sun had spiraled its way from the Tropic of Capricorn to the equator.  Then for the next three months again every day the Sun continued to slightly narrow its path and slow its speed until the Summer Solstice when the Sun made its smallest, slowest circle around the Tropic of Cancer.  Once the Sun reached this innermost circle, like the ribbons and dancers around the maypole, the Sun would then begin its opposing, widening, quickening journey back to the Tropic of Capricorn.  For the next three months every day the Sun slightly widened its path and hastened its speed until the Autumnal Equinox the Sun had spiraled its way from the Tropic of Cancer back to the equator.  Then for the next three months again every day the Sun continued to slightly widen its path and hasten its speed until the Winter Solstice when the Sun made its largest, fastest circle around the Tropic of Capricorn and the annual journey began again.

The Moon had a similar yearly path revolving over and around the Earth but unlike the Sun, which constantly changed its speed to keep a consistent 24 hour day, the Moon's speed never changed so depending on its latitude the Moon was observed then as we can observe today to take approximately 24.7 - 25 hours per cycle.  This is why at different times and places during each month we can see the Moon in the morning, afternoon or night.  This is also the origin of old fairy tales such as the the Hare and the Hedgehog or the Tortoise and the Hare.  The Hare, like the Sun, begins the annual race full of energy, excitement and ego, declaring himself the definite winner and gets off to an immediate head-start.  Meanwhile, equally confident in his seemingly lesser abilities, the humble, slow and steady Tortoise Moon begins as well allowing the Hare to lead.  As the race carries on, the cocky hare tires and slows down or takes a nap at which point the Tortoise overtakes him.  This is analogous to the Moon reaching the Tropic of Cancer before the Sun each year and beginning its return journey.  When the Hare reaches this half-way point of the race he realizes his lackluster attitude has resulted in being overtaken by the slower Tortoise and begins to speed up again.  Then for the remainder of the race, the Sun picks up speed day by day gaining on the Moon, but ultimately losing as the slow and steady Tortoise reaches the finish-line before the Hare and wins.

So for ancient man, Earth and Polaris were the two immovable center-points of the Universe around which the Sun, Moon and other stars all revolved in a dome-like shape.  Some cultures believed in a literal, physical solid dome or firmament to which the fixed stars were bound.  Other cultures mythologized the axis mundi as the World Tree with Polaris at the center and all the other constellations forming the branches.  In these flat Earth depictions the North Pole occupied the centerpoint, and "South" was all straight lines extending outwards from there.  East and West were not straight-lines as is assumed nowadays, but were in fact circles just like all lines of latitude and the paths of the celestial bodies.  The southern circumference of Earth was surrounded by a gigantic wall of ice 150-200 feet above sea-level holding the interconnected oceans in like a world cup.  Beyond the ice wall, some cultures claimed a firm barrier existed through which no human could penetrate.  Other cultures believed there were entire worlds and other civilizations existing beyond the Antarctic ice.

Currently, and for the past half century there has existed an International Antarctic Treaty preventing all independent exploration of Antarctica.  Pre-approved guided tours exist which take visitors to a few coastal regions of Antarctica, but no independent exploration of the continent is allowed.  Sailors like Jarle Andehoy have been caught attempting to explore Antarctica and threatened, turned around at gunpoint, fined, and jailed for violating this militarily enforced international treaty.  As a result the public currently has no way to confirm or deny the seemingly fantastical claims of ancient man concerning what may or may not exist at the southern-most extremities of the Earth.

We can however confirm that this 200 foot ice-wall surrounding the southern circumference of the Earth most certainly exists.  We can confirm that Polaris is indeed the only non-moving star in the sky.  All the fixed stars indeed rotate perfect circles around Polaris while remaining stuck in their relative constellations night after night, year after year, century after century.  The wandering stars or "planets" do indeed wander the heavens taking their own unique spirograph-like paths when charted from a geocentric perspective.  The Sun and Moon are indeed observably of equal size and revolve over and around us in daily cycles.  Just as the ancients observed, the Sun's annual path does indeed travel from the Tropic of Capricorn at the Winter Solstice, to the Equator at Spring Equinox, to the Tropic of Cancer at the Summer Solstice, back to the Equator at Autumnal Equinox, and finally back to the Tropic of Cancer at Winter Solstice.  The Sun's light is indeed warm, golden, drying, preservative and antiseptic, while the Moon's light is indeed cold, silver, damp, putrefying and septic.  A thermometer placed in the Sun's light will always read warmer than a thermometer placed in the Sun's shade, while a thermometer placed in the Moon's light will always read cooler than a thermometer placed in the Moon-shade.  Plant and animal substances exposed to sunlight quickly dry, shrink, coagulate and lose their tendency to decompose and putrify, whereas plant and animal substances exposed to moonlight will quickly show symptoms of putrefaction and decay.

Last but not least, just as the ancients espoused, the Earth is observably motionless to all our senses, and the horizon remains perfectly flat as far as the eye can see.  Not only does the horizon remain perfectly flat 360 degrees around the observer, but whether at sea-level, the top of Mount Everest, 35,000 feet high in an airplane, or even at over 100,000 feet high, the highest any amateur hot-air balloon has ever flown, the flat horizon actually rises to the eye-level of the observer all the way up.  On a globular Earth, no matter how large it is assumed to be, the horizon would remain where it was and the rising observer would have to tilt his head downwards further and further the higher they rose to see the steadily falling horizon.  Many people will be shocked to know that to this day, every single scientific experiment ever devised to show the alleged motion of the Earth has failed to do so (or given evidence of the opposite, that the Earth is indeed motionless) and every attempt ever made to measure the alleged curvature of the Earth has failed to do so (or given evidence of the opposite, that the Earth is indeed flat).

The first person in recorded history to ever claim that Earth was anything but the flat, motionless center of the universe was a Greek mathematician and philosopher named Pythagoras of Samos around 500 B.C.  Interestingly enough, Pythagoras has also been touted by Freemasonic historians such as Albert Mackey, James Anderson, William Hutchinson and William Preston as being the very first Freemason!  Presented more as a thought-experiment than a complete cosmology, Pythagoras posited that if the Earth were a spherical globe turning on its vertical axis once per day while revolving annually around a stationary Sun, that this model could also equally explain the cyclical motions of the heavenly bodies.  This heliocentric model was taught to initiates at Pythagoras' Crotona school but never became popular or had an influence outside of Greece for another two thousand years.

A century later, another Greek mathematician and philosopher named Plato also espoused a spherical Earth cosmology, except he claimed the Earth globe to be the motionless center of the universe with the Sun, Moon and stars revolving around.  His most famous student, Aristotle also wrote about this geocentric globe-Earth cosmology in his book "On the Heavens," offering three main points of evidence for his theory.  Firstly Aristotle noted that when sailing away from an observer on shore, ships approaching the horizon disappeared from view hull before masthead and he postulated that this occurrence was due to the curvature of the Earth.  Aristotle argued that the hull disappeared first because beyond the horizon the globe-Earth curved downwards causing the hull and eventually the masthead and entire ship to drop below the curvature.  Today we can easily prove that Aristotle was incorrect in his assumption by using telescopes, binoculars and zoom cameras.  Once a ship has completely disappeared beyond the horizon, modern technology allows us to zoom in and bring the entire vessel, hull and all, back into full view.  This proves that ships do not disappear hull-first due to the alleged curvature of the Earth, and that the horizon line is in fact merely the vanishing point of perspective from a given observer's point of view, and not as Aristotle supposed, the beginning of the Earth's curvature.  The horizon is subjective and varies in distance depending on the weather, the observer's height, and the strength of his eyesight or instruments.  As noted previously, the horizon actually rises to the eye of the observer no matter how high he climbs, which also proves that the horizon line is not some objective point of curvature on a convex Earth, but rather the subjective vanishing point of perspective from a given observer's point of view.

Aristotle's second point of evidence offered for his spherical Earth theory was the Earth's round shadow cast on the Moon during lunar eclipses.  To this day heliocentrists still offer this argument as proof of a spherical Earth, claiming that during lunar eclipses the Sun, Earth and Moon align in a perfect 180 degree syzygy like three billiard balls causing the Sun to cast the Earth's shadow onto the Moon.  This clever but faulty assumption is rendered completely invalid, however, due to the fact that lunar eclipses have happened and continue to happen regularly when both the Sun and Moon are still visible together above the horizon!  As early as the time of Pliny the Elder there are records of eclipses happening while both the Sun and Moon were visible in the sky, and continue to be recorded by the Royal Astronomical Society today.  Obviously if the Sun and Moon are both observable simultaneously during an eclipse then they are not aligned in a 180 degree syzygy and it is therefore impossible that the Sun could be casting Earth's shadow on the Moon, and some other explanation must be sought.  Another explanation, in fact, already existed in many cultures around the world, who posited that a third celestial body known as Rahu, or "The Black Sun" also existed equal in size to the Sun and Moon.  This translucent dark body passed affront of the Sun and Moon during solar and lunar eclipses causing their lights to dim.

Aristotle's final point of evidence offered for his spherical Earth theory was the appearance of Polaris and other stars to gradually decline overhead as an observer travels southwards.  He argued that the gradual declination and eventual disappearance beyond the horizon of certain stars and constellations as one traveled southwards was evidence that the observer was traveling over a convex curved surface.  Similar to the ships disappearing over the horizon argument, Aristotle posited that the horizon line was the literal curvature of his spherical Earth, and the stars which declined and disappeared beyond it became invisible because a mass of curved Earth existed between them and the observer.  In actual fact, however, the gradual declination of objects in the sky towards the horizon is merely a product of the law of perspective on plane surfaces.  As any art student of point perspective knows, the human eye views the world in a pyramidal shape so that when looking down a long hallway, the floor appears to rise, the ceiling appears to sink, and the walls appear to narrow into a point at the center of the observer's view.  Of course, the dimensions of the hallway remain constant for its entire length; The floor does not actually rise, the ceiling does not actually sink, nor do the walls actually close in; but to the human eye everything is perceived this way.  Similarly when the Sun, Moon, airplanes or clouds appear to sink towards the horizon as they move away from us, they are not actually losing altitude and slowly approaching sea-level.  They are in fact maintaining the same altitude except they are moving away from you and so the law of perspective makes them appear to sink.

A century after Aristotle, around 250 B.C. yet another Greek mathematician and philosopher named Eratosthenes made his claim to fame with a new alleged proof of the spherical Earth.  Eratosthenes noted that at noon during the Summer Solstice in Syene, the Sun cast no shadow and the rays could reach straight to the bottom of his well, yet meanwhile in Alexandria a vertically standing metal rod cast a significant shadow.  By factoring the length of the shadow with his assumed distance to the Sun, Eratosthenes recorded a measurement of Earth's circumference close to what heliocentrist astronomers still use today.  The fact of the matter is, however, that Eratosthenes' calculations were made assuming the Sun to be millions of miles away so that its rays would fall perfectly parallel even in points as divergent as Syene and Alexandria.  This faulty premise led to his faulty conclusion, which was eventually exposed upon the invention of the nautical sextant.  Using sextants and plane trigonometry, by measuring the Sun's angle at two points on Earth simultaneously and factoring their distance from each other, the Pythagorean theorum reveals both the height and dimensions of the Sun.  Using this method, the Sun and Moon have repeatedly been calculated to be approximately 32 miles in diameter, 3000 miles from the surface of the Earth.  High altitude balloon footage has also filmed lighting hot-spots on clouds proving the Sun to be local and acting as a spotlight, and not a burning ball of gas millions of miles away as supposed by heliocentrists.  After Eratosthenes, the globe-Earth theory completely disappeared from philosophical thought and recorded history for almost two millennia.  Geocentric flat-Earth cosmologies continued to reign supreme, with even Eratosthenes himself, touted as the "Father of Geography," depicting the Earth as flat in his famous 194 B.C. map of the world.  Crates of Mallus invented the first model globe-Earth around this time as well, but it failed to have any effect on the world at large.

Fast-forward to 1522 A.D. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan became the first person in known history to successfully sail around the world.  This circumnavigation of Earth soon became and continues to be touted today as absolute proof of the spherical Earth theory.  If Magellan was able to sail East-West around the entire world and return to his original starting point, surely the Earth cannot be flat and must be a globe, right?  Wrong.  Just as a compass can place its center-point on a flat piece of paper, trace a circle either way around, and return to its starting point, so can a ship or plane circumnavigate a flat Earth.  The only kind of circumnavigation which could not happen on a flat Earth is North-South-bound which to this day has still never been done.  Both the North Pole and Antarctica are military-enforced no-fly/no-sail zones due to restrictions originating from none other than the United Nations - the same United Nations that haughtily uses a flat Earth map in their official logo and flag.

In 1543, just days before his death, Freemason and Jesuit Nicolaus Copernicus published his book "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" which revived the old heliocentric cosmology of Pythagoras and began the so-called Copernican Revolution away from a flat geocentric model and towards a global heliocentric model.  Since his book claimed Earth to be a tilting, wobbling, spinning sphere revolving at break-neck speeds around a stationary Sun, it was initially met with due incredulity.  Copernicus always countered this by claiming his theories were merely hypotheses and shouldn't be considered truth.  In his book he even wrote, "The Pythagorean teaching was founded upon hypothesis and it is not necessary that the hypothesis should be true, or even probable.  The hypothesis of the movement of the Earth is only one which is useful to explain phenomena, but it should not be considered as an absolute truth." Contemporaries of Copernicus such as Danish Astronomer Tycho Brahe famously argued against his heliocentric model, positing that if the Earth revolved in an orbit round the Sun, the change in relative position of the stars after 6 months of orbital motion could not fail to be seen.  Brahe wrote that the stars should seem to separate as we approach and come together as we recede.  In actual fact, however, after millions of miles of supposed orbit around the Sun, not a single inch of parallax could be detected in the stars.  As even Wikipedia notes, "The lack of any observable parallax was considered a fatal flaw in any non-Geocentric theory."

Copernicus' answer to this obvious problem was simple.  He moved the stars so ridiculously far away from the Earth that even after millions of miles of supposed orbit around the Sun, no appreciable parallax could be detected.  Copernicus simply needed to claim that the stars were trillions upon trillions of miles away, so then mathematically-speaking it would indeed be impossible to detect such slight parallax.  Again, contemporaries of Copernicus argued against this convenient correction of his, arguing quite rightly that if the stars were trillions of miles away, then there is no way we could see them!  Back-peddling once again, Copernicus claimed the reason we could still see stars trillions of miles away, was because they were not mere tiny points of translucent light in the night sky, but that stars were in fact gigantic gas balls billions of times larger than our Sun.  So first Copernicus had to move the stars trillions of miles from Earth to explain away lack of parallax, and then he had to make the stars billions of times larger to account for why we should see them at all from such fantastical distances.  Lastly he offered very specific distances and mathematical equations to solidify his theory, claiming, for instance, that he had accurately calculated the Sun's distance from Earth to be exactly 3,391,200 miles.

At the turn of the 17th century, Tycho Brahe under the patronage of Emperor Rudolph II began construction of the largest, most state-of-the-art astronomical observatory ever built.  Upon hearing this, German astronomer and Freemason Johannes Kepler was determined to apprentice under Brahe.  Even though Kepler championed Copernicus's widely disputed heliocentric globe-Earth theory, Brahe begrudgingly accepted Kepler as his apprentice based on his merit as an astute astronomer and mathematician.  Brahe allowed Kepler access to the observatory, but guarded his data and findings from him completely, which frustrated and angered Kepler to the point of eventually culminating in a heated argument between the two of them resulting in Brahe kicking Kepler out.  After much amends and apologizing, a year later Brahe finally forgave Kepler and accepted him back as apprentice.  This time, however, Kepler was not content with his role as mere apprentice and soon proposed and secured a commissioned position on Brahe and Emperor Rudolph's new project, "the Rudolphine Astronomical Tables."  Less than a month later, Tycho Brahe mysteriously dropped dead, and Johannes Kepler was given access to all of Brahe's coveted data, free-reign of the observatory, and become Emperor Rudolph's new official astronomer.  Abundant circumstantial evidence and obvious motive have long fed speculation that Kepler actually murdered Brahe.  Brahe was only 54 years old and in fine health when suddenly he became deathly ill and passed away.  His official cause of death was reported as a bladder infection, but subsequent autopsies of his body revealed toxic quantities of mercury present on his moustache hairs which has led many researchers to conclude he was poisoned.  The 2004 book "Heavenly Intrigue" suggested that Kepler had indeed murdered Brahe to gain access to his data.  Kepler himself never denied this and he actually wrote, "I confess that when Tycho died, I quickly took advantage of the absence, or lack of circumspection, of the heirs, by taking the observations under my care, or perhaps usurping them."  And so for the remainder of his life Kepler worked at Brahe's observatory for Brahe's employer using Brahe's data to further his Copernican theories which Brahe had always criticized.  He modified Copernicus's calculations of celestial motions changing them from perfect circles to irregular ellipses, and even formulated a new updated distance of the Sun from Earth.  While Copernicus had claimed positively the Sun to be 3,391,200 miles from Earth, Kepler assured the astronomical community that his new figure of 12,376,800 miles was the true distance.

A few years later, in 1608 the first telescope was invented, and by 1609 the next champion of Copernicism, Italian astronomer, Freemason and probable Jesuit Galileo Galilei, had purchased and built several of them.  Galileo improved upon the telescope's design boosting the zoom capabilities from the original 3x up to 30x magnification and in 1610 made the most important alleged discovery of his career.  With his 30x zoom telescope, Galileo claimed to have seen what he described as "three fixed stars, totally invisible by their smallness, all close to Jupiter, and lying on a straight line through it."  After tracking these "invisible stars" for a while and noticing they appeared sometimes but not others, Galileo concluded that when he could not find them they must be hiding behind Jupiter and therefore they must not be "invisible stars" at all, but rather "invisible moons" orbiting Jupiter.  His alleged discovery of moons orbiting Jupiter was then touted as proof of the Copernican system, claiming that Earth must be a planet like Jupiter since both have orbiting moons.  To this day, NASA claims to have special telescopes which can (on occasion) see these moons of Jupiter, just as Galileo claimed in his day to see (on occasion) with his special telescopes.  Nowadays with modern telescopes and zoom technology, we can see the celestial bodies far closer and with far more clarity than Galileo could have ever hoped for.  A 2016 Nikon P900 has 83x optical zoom and 332x digital, capabilities which put Galilean telescopes to shame, yet even with this level of magnification Galileo's alleged "invisible stars" orbiting Jupiter are nowhere to be found.

Galileo and his fellow-Mason predecessors, acting more like true-believers of their heliocentric faith than legitimate scientists, were constantly guilty of inventing elaborate theories to support their foregone conclusion.  This was never more evident than when Galileo presented his theory on the cause of tides in 1616.  Cardinal Bellarmine had written Galileo the year before stating that "the Copernican system could not be defended without a true physical demonstration that the Sun does not circle the Earth but the Earth circles the Sun."  Taking this to heart, Galileo hoped to show that the Earth's tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water as a point on Earth's surface sped up and slowed down due to Earth's alleged rotation on axis and revolution around the Sun.  He argued that these hypothetical motions of his globular Earth were the cause of tides, and therefore the tides were proof of Earth's motion.  Unfortunately for Galileo, his ideas were not accepted and easily proven wrong by his contemporaries who rightly pointed out that if his theory were correct, there would only be one high tide per day.  Not only this, but if tides were caused by Earth's alleged motion, all lakes, ponds and other inland bodies of water should be similarly affected, yet they are not.

The next champion of heliocentricism was English mathematician and astronomer, knighted Freemason and Royal Society President "Sir" Isaac Newton.  In 1687 Newton published his famous Principia Mathematica, which presented his idea of "gravity" to the world.  The globe-Earth theory had long faced criticism for being impractical due to the natural physics of spinning spherical objects.  Namely, that anything placed on their surface should immediately fall or fly off!  How could people, buildings, and the great oceans remain perfectly stuck to a ball-Earth spinning faster than the speed of sound?  The globe-Earth theory needed a force that could keep everything in place somehow; a force strong enough to keep the oceans stuck to the Earth, but weak enough not to sink a sailboat; a force strong enough to drag the entire atmosphere along with Earth's break-neck speed, but weak enough to allow birds and bugs to travel freely and unabated in all directions; a force so strong it could make rain fall upwards and plants grow upside down, but yet so weak that it could not be detected by any contemporary methods.  Newton's postulate of "an invisible force able to act over vast distances" led to him being heavily criticized for "introducing occult agencies into the field of science." 

Previous to Newton's theory of universal gravitation, the natural laws of density and buoyancy already perfectly and adequately explained the world around us.  For example, the reason a balloon filled with helium rises into the sky while a balloon filled with air drops to the ground, is not because Newton's mystical pulling force has an aversion to helium, but rather simply because helium is lighter and less dense than the nitrogen, oxygen and other elements which compose the air around it, so it floats up, and conversely, a balloon filled with your carbon dioxide exhalation is heaver and denser than the air around it, so it falls down to the ground.  If you blow a dandelion seed out of your hands, a substance just barely heavier than the air, it will float away and slowly but eventually fall to the ground.  If you drop an anvil from your hands, something much heavier than the air, it will quickly and directly fall straight to the ground.  This is not because gravity prefers anvils to dandelion seeds, but rather because it is the natural physics of buoyancy for objects less dense than the medium surrounding them to rise, while objects denser than the medium surrounding them sink.  This is the reason raindrops fall down through the air and air-bubbles rise up through the water - because of their relative densities.  It has nothing whatsoever to do with the mystical pulling force of spinning balls from Newton's imagination.

Newton's theory allegedly began when upon seeing an apple fall from a tree at Woolsthorpe, as though no one in the history of humanity up to that point had ever seen a falling object and wondered why it fell, he had a veritable scientific epiphany.  The apple fell not because it was heavier and denser than the air around it, but rather because a force at the center of the spinning ball-Earth pulled it to the ground!  Newton quickly got to work formulating his theory of universal gravitation which he used to explain not only falling objects, but also orbiting celestial bodies.  Newton claimed that the Sun, Moon, Earth, planets and stars' gravity caused them to all orbit around the most massive nearby bodies.  So not only was gravity fickle and selective about which objects it caused to fall and which it allowed to rise, gravity was also able to perform different functions on different scales.  At the human scale, gravity allegedly caused people, buildings and oceans to stick to the Earth, while at the planetary scale, gravity allegedly caused moons to orbit around planets and planets to orbit around stars.  Unfortunately Newton never addressed this, but the question remains, how and why would gravity cause both planets to orbit the Sun and people to stick to the Earth?  Gravity should either cause people to float around in suspended circular orbits around the Earth, or it should cause the Earth, Moon and planets to all be pulled and crash into the Sun.  The two effects are very different yet the same cause is attributed to both.

Furthermore, this magnetic-like attraction of massive objects gravity is purported to have can be found nowhere in the natural world.  There is no example in nature of a massive sphere or any other shaped-object which by virtue of its mass alone causes smaller objects to stick to or orbit around it!  There is nothing on Earth massive enough that it can be shown to cause even a dust-bunny to stick to or orbit around it.  Try spinning a wet tennis ball or any other spherical object with smaller things placed on its surface and you will find that everything falls or flies off, and nothing sticks to or orbits it.  To claim the existence of a physical "law" without a single practical evidential example is hearsay, not science.  By now, however, you are likely beginning to see that these Freemasonic heliocentric priests are less interested in science and truth than they are in propagating contrived evidences for their foregone conclusions.  In like manner, as Copernicus had claimed positively the Sun to be 3,391,200 away and Kepler had calculated it to be 12,376,800 miles away, Newton was quoted as remarking, "It matters not whether we reckon it 28 or 54 million miles distant for either would do just as well!"  It appears he was correct, because the alleged distance to the heliocentrist's Sun has continued to increase by the millions until today where we stand with NASA's current official figure of 93 million.

In 1773 Captain Cook became the first modern explorer known to have breached the Antarctic circle and reached the ice barrier.  This expedition offered an exciting chance to find proof of either the flat or globe Earth models because Captain Cook intended to sail completely around Antarctica looking for inlets through the ice-wall.  If the Earth was indeed a globe 25,000 miles in equatorial circumference as the heliocentrists claimed, then a complete circumnavigation of Antarctica would be approximately 12,000 miles, and if the Earth was flat with Antarctica surrounding the entire circumference, a complete circumnavigation of Antarctica would have to take over 50,000 miles.  During three voyages lasting three years and eight days, Captain Cook and crew sailed a total of 60,000 miles along the Antarctic coastline never once finding an inlet or path through or beyond the massive glacial wall!  Captain Cook wrote: "The ice extended east and west far beyond the reach of our sight, while the southern half of the horizon was illuminated by rays of light which were reflected from the ice to a considerable height."

Later voyages by Captain James Clark Ross and Captain George Nares in the 19th century further confirmed Cook's findings.  Ross's expedition spent 4 years and 5 months in heavily armored warships failing to find an entry point beyond the southern glacial wall, and Nares spent over 3 years circumnavigating Antarctica, taking an admittedly indirect course, but clocking in nearly 69,000 miles total!  If Antarctica truly was the tiny ice-continent claimed by globe-Earth proponents, all of these expeditions would have ended years sooner.  In addition to this, many Antarctic explorers including Captain James Clark Ross and Lieutenant Charles Wilkes using globe-Earth projection maps, wrote in their journals perplexed at how they routinely found themselves out of accordance with their charts, stating that they found themselves an average of 12-16 miles outside their reckoning every day, later on further south increasing to as much as 29 miles per day!  These huge discrepancies experienced by explorers the further south traveled are usually attributed to increasingly strong storms, winds and currents, but if that were the case they should have just as often found themselves ahead of their reckoning, which they never did.

In 1783 the hot air balloon was invented and for the first time in recorded history people were able to float miles above the Earth's surface and see for themselves once and for all whether or not the Earth was flat or a globe.  To many people's astonishment, as high as they rose, the horizon remained perfectly flat 360 degrees around them and rose to the level of their eyes all the way up.  J. Glaisher wrote in his "Travels in the Air," that, "on looking over the top of the car, the horizon appeared to be on a level with the eye, and taking a grand view of the whole visible area beneath, I was struck with its great regularity; all was dwarfed to one plane; it seemed too flat."  M. Victor Emanuel, another hot-air balloonist wrote that, "Instead of the Earth declining from the view on either side, and the higher part being under the car, as is popularly supposed, it was the exact opposite; the lowest part, like a huge basin, being immediately under the car and the horizon on all sides rising to the level of the eye."  As stated previously, this is only possible on a flat plane.

It would be an entire century after Newton published his theories on gravitation before any scientific experiment was devised to attempt to prove its existence.  In 1797, Henry Cavendish, the British scientist, Freemason, and wealthy grandson of the Duke of Devonshire, created an experiment which he claimed successfully proved the existence of gravity, measured its constant, and provided accurate figures for the exact masses of the Earth, Sun, Moon, and Planets.  How did Cavendish achieve this quantum leap for heliocentric pseudo-science?  He fixed two large lead balls on opposite ends of a torsion balance and hung them from the roof of his shed.  By watching and recording slight motions of the contraption via telescope through his shed window so his mass would not affect the reading, Cavendish claimed to have proven gravity.  Two small lead balls were hung near the large ones and any motion observed towards one another was touted as being the influence of gravity.

Now, the Cavendish experiment has been widely criticized by the scientific community because never in over two centuries since its creation has anyone been able to replicate it!  Firstly, the balls simply do not always attract one another as they must for the so-called gravitational constant to be constant at all.  Sometimes the torsion balance turns towards the balls and sometimes away as it is impossible not to give some slight tremulous motion when interacting with it.  Henry even complained in his notes how often as he was performing the measurement the contraption was still in oscillation.  Secondly, since his calculated force of gravity was 10^39 weaker than the force of electro-magnetism, from which all material objects are composed, there is no control for the experiment which can factor out and positively differentiate the alleged gravitational force, from the known stronger electro-magnetic force.  In other words, the balls could simply be attracting each other through static electricity, a known force existing in all things, billions of times stronger than gravity, and impossible to control for the experiment.  Even though no one could replicate Cavendish's findings, the experiment went down in history as a great success, and is still taught as veritable proof of universal gravitation in science textbooks today.

Half a century later, in 1851, a French scientist named Leon Foucault performed a similar experiment to Cavendish, but this time hanging a single ball from the ceiling, swinging it, and claiming all lateral motion observed to be proof that the Earth was turning beneath the pendulum!  Since Foucault's original demonstration, these pendulums have regularly been swinging at museums and exhibition halls worldwide purporting to provide everlasting perpetual proof of the heliocentric spinning ball-Earth theory.  The truth is, however, unbeknownst to most of the duped public, that Foucault's pendulum is a failed experiment which proves nothing but how easy it is for pseudo-science to deceive the malleable masses.  To begin with, Foucault's pendulums do not uniformly swing in any one direction.  Sometimes they rotate clockwise and sometimes counter-clockwise, sometimes they fail to rotate and sometimes they rotate far too much.  Just like the Cavendish experiment, scientists who have attempted to replicate Foucault's findings have conceded time and again that "it was difficult to avoid giving the pendulum some slight lateral bias at starting."  In truth, the behavior of the pendulum actually depends on 1) the initial force beginning its swing and, 2) the ball-and-socket joint used which most readily facilitates circular motion over any other.  The supposed rotation of the Earth is completely inconsequential and irrelevant to the pendulum's swing.  If the alleged constant rotation of the Earth affected pendulums in any way, then there should be no need to manually start pendulums in motion.  If the Earth's diurnal rotation caused the 360 degree uniform diurnal rotation of pendulums, then there should not exist a stationary pendulum anywhere on Earth!

Also in the mid-19th century, another Frenchman named Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis performed several experiments showing the effect of kinetic energy on rotating systems, which have ever since become mythologized as proof of the heliocentric theory.  His "Coriolis Effect" is often said to cause sinks and toilet bowls in the Northern Hemisphere to drain spinning in one direction while in the Southern Hemisphere causing them to spin the opposite way, thus providing proof of the spinning ball-Earth.  Once again, however, just like Foucault's swinging pendulums and Cavendish's hanging balls, sinks and toilets in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres do not consistently spin in any one direction!  Sinks and toilets in the very same household are often found to spin opposite directions, depending entirely upon the shape of the basin and the angle of the water's entry, not the supposed rotation of the Earth.  The Coriolis Effect is also said to affect bullet trajectories and weather patterns as well, supposedly causing most storms in the Northern Hemisphere to rotate counter-clockwise, and most storms in the Southern Hemisphere to rotate clockwise, to cause bullets from long range guns to tend towards the right of the target in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.  Again, however, the same problems remain.  Not every bullet and not every storm consistently displays the behavior and therefore cannot reasonably be used as proof of anything.

In the late 19th century, mostly thanks to the experiments, books, and lectures of an English inventor and author named Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, a flat Earth renaissance began sweeping the world.  Rowbotham's findings, beginning with his 1864 book, "Earth Not a Globe! An Experimental Inquiry into the True Figure of the Earth: Proving it a Plane, Without Axial or Orbital Motion; and the Only Material World in the Universe," caused quite a stir in the scientific community and thanks to three decades of his efforts, the shape of the Earth became a hot topic of debate around the turn of the 19th century.  Dr. Rowbotham conducted several experiments using telescopes, spirit levels, and theodolites, special precision instruments used for measuring angles in horizontal or vertical planes.  By positioning them at equal heights aimed at each other successively he proved over and over the Earth to be perfectly flat for miles without a single inch of curvature.

In his most famous series of experiments, Rowbotham traveled to Cambridge, England where there is a 20 mile canal called the Old Bedford which passes in a straight line through the Fenlands known as the Bedford Level.  The water has no interruption from locks or water-gates of any kind and remains stationary making it perfectly suitable for determining whether any amount of convexity/curvature actually exists.  If we were living on a ball-Earth, every pond, lake, marsh, canal and other large body of standing water, each part would have to comprise a slight arc or semi-circle curving downwards from the central summit.  If the ball-Earth were truly 25,000 miles in circumference as claimed by heliocentrists, then spherical trigonometry dictates the surface of all standing water must curve downwards an easily measurable 8 inches per mile multiplied by the square of the distance.  This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water the Earth would have to curve 16 feet, 8 inches downwards from one end to the other, and/or dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak, depending where the measurement is taken.

Rowbotham tested first by standing in the water holding a telescope 8 inches above the surface, while his partner rowed away from him in a small boat with a 5 foot tall flag attached.  If the Earth was indeed a globe 25,000 miles in circumference, by the time the boat reached Welney Bridge 6 miles away, the entire boat and flag should have been completely invisible hidden behind a 6 foot tall mass of curved water.  In reality however, every time tested, the entire boat and flag remained visible from start to finish.  In a second experiment Dr. Rowbotham placed seven flags along the edge of the water each one mile distant from the next with their tops positioned 5 feet above the surface and stood with his telescope behind the first.  If the Earth was a globe 25,000 miles in circumference, each successive flag would have to decline a definite and determined amount below the last.  The first and second flags establish the line of sight, then the third should fall 8 inches below the second, the fourth flag 32 inches below, the fifth 6 feet, the sixth 10 feet 8 inches, and the seventh flag should be a clear 16 feet 8 inches below the line of sight!  Even if the Earth was a globe of a hundred thousand miles, an amount of easily measurable curvature should and would still be evident in this experiment.  But the reality is not a single inch of curvature was detected and the flags all lined up perfectly as consistent with a flat plane.

In 1870 one of Rowbotham's supporters, an English scientist of the Royal Academy named John Hampden, offered a public wager of 500 pounds to anyone who thought they could prove the Earth spherica


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The History of Flat Earth

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