Soft Skills is all about SMARTNESS which comes through Awareness & Humbleness.
QUICK REVISION NOTES ON IT
§ Early computing machines, like the ENIAC, were actually meant to assist the armed forces.
§ The printers in pre-1950s were punch cards.
§ An improvement on the ENIAC, which pioneered ‘stored program’, was made possible with the help of the mathe-matician John von Neumann.
§ Before the 1950s, computers were mostly owned by universities and research labs.
§ The B-programming language was developed by Ken Thompson.
§ Famous people, associated with the ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC computers are Eckert & Mauchly.
§ The 1st commercially produced and sold computer (1951) was UNIVAC.
§ IBM was provided software for PCs by Microsoft.
§ Time-sharing, teletyping, were associated with mainframe computers.
§ The transformation from heavy computers to PCs was made possible using microprocessors.
§ The first microprocessor was developed in 1971 by Intel.
§ The term ‘micro’ (extremely small) denotes 10–6 m.
§ The Harvard student, who chose to write computer programs and dropped studies was Bill Gates.
§ A pentium 4 (P-4) employs roughly 40 million transistors.
§ Mark-1, Apple-1, and collossus were initial desktop computers.
§ Binary digits are briefed as bit.
§ A collection of bits is called byte.
§ C++, is a computer language.
§ The process of eliminating pro-gramming faults is called debugging.
§ Starting up on operating system is called booting.
§ A program used to browse the web is called browser.
§ An error in software designing which can even cause a computer to crash is called bug.
§ Click and double-click are achieved using the mouse.
§ Java, C, ForTran, Pascal and BASIC are computer programming languages.
§ The device which sends computer data using a phone line is called MODEM.
§ ‘Worm’ and ‘virus’ are actually programs.
§ A ‘file’ is a unit of information.
§ A megabyte has 106 (million) bytes.
§ A small, single-site Network is called LAN.
§ A processor that collects several data and sends them over a single line is called bridge.
§ ‘Nano’ stands for one billionth part.
§ The number of bit patterns using an n-bit code is 2n.
§ The part of a computer that works with the data/programs is called CPU.
§ To convert a binary number to a decimal, we have to express it in power of 2.
§ www stands for world wide web.
§ Mathematics employed in computers is called Boolean algebra.
§ A collection of 8 bits is called byte.
§ The first home computer (1977), which was sold in millions of units was Apple II.
§ ‘PARAM’ is a supercomputer.
§ A website containing periodic posts is called blog.
§ While cutting and pasting, the cut item is temporarily stored in the clipboard.
§ http stands for hypertext transfer Protocol.
§ The unwanted or non-requested e-mails are called “spam”.
§ A computer framed to give various network services is called server.
§ SSL is an acronym for Secure Sockets Layer. SSL provides a secure connection, allowing you to transmit private data online. Sites secured with SSL display a padlock in the browsers URL and possibly a green address bar if secured by an EV SSL certificate.
§ Search engine optimization (SEO) is an area of website development that seeks to improve the way content is ranked by search engines in organic search results.
§ Kubernetes is Google’s orchestration system for managing containerized applications.
§ Augmented reality (AR) is the integration of digital information with live video or the user’s environment in real time.
§ The Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in which objects, animals or people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
§ Software-defined networking (SDN) is an umbrella term encompassing several kinds of network technology aimed at making the network as agile and flexible as the virtualized server and storage infrastructure of the modern data center. The goal of SDN is to allow network engineers and administrators to respond quickly to changing business requirements.
§ Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be easily interconnected using a short-range wireless connection.
§ The Centre for Development for Advanced Computing (CDAC) is the main research and development group for the Department of Information Technology (DIT) and the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) in India.
§ The Data Security Council of India (DSCI) is a not-for-profit organization created to promote the country as a secure destination for information technology (IT) outsourcing. DSCI was founded by NASSCOM, an Indian IT-BPO (business process outsourcing) consortium.
§ CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization. The purpose of CERT-In is to respond to computer security incidents, report on vulnerabilities and promote effective IT security practices throughout the country.
§ The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is a nonprofit organization that promotes research into best practices for securing cloud computing and the ability of cloud technologies to secure other forms of computing.
§ Cloud computing is a general term for the delivery of hosted services over the Internet. Cloud computing enables companies to consume compute resources as a utility — just like electricity — rather than having to build and maintain computing infrastructures in-house.
§ Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated as UTC, and therefore often spelled out as Universal Time Coordinated and sometimes as Universal Coordinated Time) is the standard time common to every place in the world. Formerly and still widely called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and also World Time, UTC nominally reflects the mean solar time along the Earth’s prime meridian.
§ E-voting is an election system that allows a voter to record his or her secure and secret ballot electronically.
§ GIF stands for Graphics Interchange Format and is one of the two most common file formats for graphic images on the World Wide Web. The other is the JPEG.
§ HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is an industry standard for creating audio and video connections between high-definition electronic devices. HDMI supports two-way digital communication between the video source and the video display with one cable.
§ ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is the private (non-government) non-profit corporation with responsibility for IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions, the services previously performed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
§ Megabytes per second (MBps) describes a unit of data transfer to and from a computer storage device. A megabyte is 2 to the 20th power bytes, or 1,048,576 bytes in decimal notation.
§ RAID (redundant array of independent disks; originally redundant array of inexpensive disks) provides a way of storing the same data in different places (thus, redundantly) on multiple hard disks (though not all RAID levels provide redundancy).SWIFT (Society for the Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication) was founded in Brussels in 1973. It is a co-operative organization dedicated to the promotion and development of standardized global interactivity for financial transactions. The Society operates a messaging service for financial messages, such as letters of credit, payments, and securities transactions, between member banks worldwide. SWIFT’s essential function is to deliver these messages quickly and securely — both of which are prime considerations for financial matters.
§ Unicode is an entirely new idea in setting up binary codes for text or script characters. Officially called the Unicode Worldwide Character Standard, it is a system for “the interchange, processing, and display of the written texts of the diverse languages of the modern world.” It also supports many classical and historical texts in a number of languages. Currently, the Unicode standard contains 34,168 distinct coded characters derived from 24 supported language scripts. These characters cover the principal written languages of the world.
§ USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a plug-and-play interface between a computer and add-on devices, such as media players, keyboards, telephones, digital cameras, scanners, flash drives, joysticks and printers. USB supports hot-swapping, which means that a new device can be added to your computer without having to add an adapter card or even having to turn the computer off. The USB peripheral bus standard was developed by Compaq, IBM, DEC, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, and Northern Telecom.
§ Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to describe data. The XML standard is a flexible way to create information formats and electronically share structured data via the public Internet, as well as via corporate networks.
§ BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is a protocol that lets a network user be automatically configured (receive an IP address) and have an operating system booted (initiated) without user involvement.
§ CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and third-generation (3G) wireless communications. As the term implies, CDMA is a form of multiplexing, which allows numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel, optimizing the use of available bandwidth. The technology is used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF) cellular telephone systems in the 800-MHz and 1.9-GHz bands.
§ DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a communications protocol that network administrators use to centrally manage and automate the network configuration of devices attaching to an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
§ Ethernet/IP (Ethernet Industrial Protocol) is a network communication standard capable of handling large amounts of data at speeds of 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps, and at up to 1500 bytes per packet. The specification uses an open protocol at the application layer. It is especially popular for control applications.
§ File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet over TCP/IP connections.
§ HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules for transferring files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. As soon as a Web user opens their Web browser, the user is indirectly making use of HTTP. HTTP is an application protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP suite of protocols (the foundation protocols for the Internet).
§ The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet.
§ An IPPP (Internet presence provider and promoter) is a company that helps an enterprise create a Web site, arrange for hosting (housing, maintaining, and providing Internet access) for the Web site, and promote an audience for it. Many Internet service providers (ISPs) are also IPPPs, but some ISPs simply offer users access to the Internet.
§ IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is a set of specifications from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that’s essentially an upgrade of IP version 4 (IPv4). The basics of IPv6 are similar to those of IPv4 — devices can use IPv6 as source and destination addresses to pass packets over a network, and tools like ping work for network testing as they do in IPv4, with some slight variations.
§ POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) is a standard protocol for receiving e-mail.
§ TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network.
§ The 404 error indicates that the server where the page should reside has been contacted but that the page is does not exist at that address, at that time. 404 errors can result when sites cease to exist, when pages or files are moved or deleted or when URLS are mistyped.
§ Above the fold, as it applies to Web design, is the portion of a Web page that is visible in a browser window when the page first loads. The portion of the page that requires scrolling in order to see content is called “below the fold.”
§ Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol address (IP address) to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network.
§ B2C is short for business-to-consumer, or the retailing part of e-commerce on the Internet. It is often contrasted to B2B or business-to-business.
§ Black hat is used to describe a hacker (or, if you prefer, cracker) who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent. Unlike a white hat hacker, the black hat hacker takes advantage of the break-in, perhaps destroying files or stealing data for some future purpose.
§ A blog (short for weblog) is a personal online journal that is frequently updated and intended for general public consumption. Blogs are defined by their format: a series of entries posted to a single page in reverse-chronological order. Blogs generally represent the personality of the author or reflect the purpose of the Web site that hosts the blog.
§ On a Web site, a breadcrumb trail is a navigation tool that allows a user to see where the current page is in relation to the Web site’s hierarchy. The term breadcrumb trail comes from the story of Hansel and Gretel, who left a trail of breadcrumbs as they walked through the forest so they could trace their way back home.
§ In Web advertising, the click rate is the number of clicks on an ad on an HTML page as a percentage of the number of times that the ad was downloaded with a page. Thus, the click rate on a particular page with an ad would be 10% if one in ten people who downloaded the page clicked on the ad.
§ Crowdfunding is a financing method that involves funding a project with relatively modest contributions from a large group of individuals, rather than seeking substantial sums from a small number of investors. The funding campaign and transactions are typically conducted online through dedicated crowdfunding sites, often in conjunction with social networking sites.
§ In information technology, a dashboard is a user interface that, somewhat resembling an automobile’s dashboard, organizes and presents information in a way that is easy to read.
§ A favicon (for “favorite icon”) is a customized image that browsers uses, if it is available, as an icon to go with a user-specified bookmarked site on the Links bar at the top of a Web browser window.
§ A hashtag is a tag used to categorize posts on Twitter (tweets) according to topics. To add a hashtag to a tweet, you just preface the relevant term with the hash symbol (#). That will allow people who follow that topic to find your tweet and perhaps follow you as well.
§ Malware (for “malicious software”) is any program or file that is harmful to a computer user. Thus, malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and also spyware, programming that gathers information about a computer user without permission.
§ Ping is a basic Internet program that allows a user to verify that a particular IP address exists and can accept requests.
§ WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) is a specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular telephones and radio transceivers, can be used for Internet access, including e-mail, the World Wide Web, newsgroups, and instant messaging.
§ Web 2.0 is the current state of online technology as it compares to the early days of the Web, characterized by greater user interactivity and collaboration, more pervasive network connectivity and enhanced communication channels. One of the most significant differences between Web 2.0 and the traditional World Wide Web (WWW, retroactively referred to as Web 1.0) is greater collaboration among Internet users, content providers and enterprises. Originally, data was posted on Web sites, and users simply viewed or downloaded the content. Increasingly, users have more input into the nature and scope of Web content and in some cases exert real-time control over it.