Fundamentals of Seismic Loading on Structures
Since ancient times, earthquakes have taken a heavy toll on human life and property, made
worse on a psychological level by the unexpected nature of the event. Mitigation of the
damage caused by earthquakes is a prime requirement in many parts of the world today.
and is the key step before any building design activity can be undertaken. Generally this also
requires the assessment of an appropriate structural loading.
earthquakes and defining the loading on buildings associated with such events. Great advances
have been made in the field of plate tectonics followed by developments in geotechnical
engineering and soil mechanics. Though much remains to be followed up and quantified,
understanding in these areas has reached a stage where the findings and procedures may
now be integrated into a rational determination of ‘earthquake loadings’ for the design of