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Political economy - Risk in stock market

In this research, we provide new evidence about the categorical pricing of exchange risk in the stock market, based on promising market data. Our results hold the hypothesis of a significant categorical exchange risk premium in emerging stock markets, another way from most categorical tests for major developed markets more over monetary policy in a two-country model where agents can endow their wealth in both stock and bond markets. We show that, in order to achieve price stability, the state Banks in countries should grant a devoted response to movements in stock prices driven by relative productivity shocks. Although it is often conceived as a key feature of neo-liberal globalization, appeals to 'mass investment' have actually occupied much longer and more multifaceted historical contexts than are often recognized but as something made possible in the spaces of everyday life and through the processes in which individuals rule themselves in those spaces. Cultural-economic analysis, this paper concludes, can help complicate critical conceptions of 'finance' by moving away from epochal analysis and by embryonic more historically situated accounts of the financial world and the 'everyday' contexts it has occupied. Because stock markets in emerging economies are moderately new, under regulated, and often segmented, investors' responses to public announcements by firms in these economies may differ from responses in developed economies' stock markets. Using a panel of 27 countries, liberalization is connected with a short-term boost in real private investment growth of about 14 percentage points cumulatively in the four years subsequent liberalization and a cumulative 4 percentage point increase in real GDP per capita growth. The benefits of liberalization are higher in countries that have enhanced their institutional structure prior to liberalization.
Keywords: stock market, liberalization, globalization, institutional structure.
The impact of stock market on country’s economy.
Stock market liberalization.
International strategic alliances in emerging stock markets.
Exchange risk in emerging stock markets.
GDP growth related to stock market improvement.
Research question:
What are the impacts of emerging stock market on country’s GDP and international strategic alliances?


During the very last two decades, many promising markets have liberalized their domestic stock markets, but equity markets in many developing countries remain largely closed to foreign contribution. A gifted literature assesses the inferences of stock market liberalization for economic development (Review of World Economics / Weltwirtschaftliches Archive, Vol. 139, No. 4 (2003), pp.730-761) .Foreign exchange risk is renowned, besides market segmentation, as one of the most significant magnitude of foreign investments and international asset pricing. Without a doubt, the continuation of currency risk is among the major issues facing international investors, because exchange rate volatility may decrease the benefits of international diversification.  (Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2006), pp. 372-391) for emerging stocks markets there is a sound effect of stock market on the country’s economy for this we have an example of Chinese stock markets, We obtained daily stock market trades on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges and the annual financial statements of China's scheduled companies from China Stock Market and secretarial Research Database (CSMAR) for the maximum offered time 1991-2004. The SDC Platinum Joint Ventures and Alliances database provides in sequence on equity and non-equity alliances for the period 1988-2004. We limit our analysis to alliances between Chinese firms and firms from other countries we use the available data in both CSMAR and SDC Platinum to conduct an event study, calculating the increasing abnormal returns (CARs) for Chinese firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges we barred eight firms because they were listed on a Chinese exchange and also on at least one US, UK or Hong Kong stock exchange. 4 firms were redundant because of confounding events around the ISA announcement date. The final sample is composed of 309 ISA announcements, of which 232 involved firms listed on the Shanghai stock exchange and 11 involved firms listed on the Shenzhen stock exchange, it discloses information on ISA announcements by year and by country of the overseas partner (Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 2008), pp. 102-117). Well-functioning stock markets are likely to control growth through increased capital accrual and by influencing the competence of capital provision (Levine 2001). Liberalization can excite capital buildup because it will, under some plausible assumptions, reduce the cost of equity and, more generally, the aggregate cost of capital. This occurs because liberalization can diminish both components of the cost of equity, which are the risk-free rate and the equity premium (Review of World Economics / Weltwirtschaftliches Archie, Vol. 139, No. 4 (2003), pp.730-761) In efficient markets, financial markets react immediately to corporate announcement (Mack inlay, 1997; McWilliams & Siegel, 1997; McWilliams, Siegel, & Teoh, 1999; Miller, 1999). Inefficient markets, however, typically suffer from information leakages prior to the announcement dates (Bhattacharya, Daouk, Jorgenson, & Kehr, 2000). Information leakages can occur, for example, through individual dealings in response to public rumors and press articles past to the event date or from insider trading on non public information linked to the announcement. As a result, rising economy’s stock markets may not respond to announcements. Bhattacharya et al. (2000: 70), for example, found that the Mexican stock market did not react to corporate news they completed that information leakages caused "prices to fully incorporate the information before its public release", thus creation it a non-event (Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 2008), pp. 102-117) .China's Stock Market China offers an efficient background for studying how rising stock markets react to the announcement of ISAs (Wang & Xu, 2004). Stock exchanges were recognized by China in 1990 with the explicit point of financing state-owned enterprises and humanizing their act. The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SHSE) opened its doors in 1990; the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) in 1991. Both exchanges are non-profit, self-regulatory legal entities; almost all companies listed on China's stock market are reorganized state owned enterprises (Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 2008), pp. 102-117). Hypothetically, if the possessions of currency risk do not evaporate in a well-diversified portfolio, experience to the exchange risk aspect should yield a risk premium, On the other hand, if PPP holds and if there are no barrier to global investments and no differences in spending goods, then the single-index capital asset pricing model (CAPM) should hold globally, and exchange risk should not be priced, Given the wide pragmatic evidence against such a perfect world, some early hypothetical studies considered the effects of foreign exchange risk on asset returns and developed global asset pricing models that include exchange risk factors along with the traditional market risk factor (Solnik, 1974; Sercu, 1980; Stulz, 1981a; Adler and Dumas, 1983 and the review by Solnik (1997). On the empirical side, the evidence from testing categorical asset pricing models is pretty mixed and incomplete, early tests, such as Hamao (1988) and Jorion (1991), were rather questionable and generally found no data that exchange risk is priced on the Japanese and US stock markets (Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2006), pp. 372-391Published). The hypothetical argue has enthused a number of experiential analyses on the effects of stock market liberalization. Bekaert and Harvey (2000), Henry (2000a, 2003), Kim and Singal (2000), and Martell and Stulz (2003) focus on the special effects of liberalization for the rate of capital and equity returns. Galindo et al. (2002) show that liberalization can promote financial sector development and can stimulate the growth rate of sectors that rely on external financing. Perotti and van Oijen (2001) and Perotti and Leaven (200 1 ) show that successful privatization and liberal- ization are an important source for developing emerging stock markets. Henry (2000b) finds a significant and very large transitory effect of stock market liberalization on private investment. The mean growth rate of real private investment exceeds the sample mean by 22 percentage points in the three years following liberalization. This positive connection persists even after scheming for world business cycle effects, economic reforms, and domestic rudiments (Review of World Economics / Weltwirtschaftliches Archie, Vol. 139, No. 4 (2003), pp.730-761)


Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2006), pp. 372-391
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 39, No. 8 (Dec., 2007), pp. 1947-1985
Review of International Political Economy, Vol. 12, No. 2 (May, 2005), pp. 334-363
Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 2008), pp. 102-117
Review of World Economics / Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Vol. 139, No. 4 (2003), pp.730-761

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Political economy - Risk in stock market


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