In this blog, we will be discussing the important concepts and formulas related to Profit and Loss & questions based on it. It is an important topic from bank exams point of view & you can expect questions being asked from this topic.

- The price at which an article is purchased is known as its
**Cost Price (C.P).** - The price at which an article is sold is known as its
**Selling Price (S.P).** - There is a loss occurred in a transaction if
**C.P. > S.P.** - There is a profit registered in the transaction if
**C.P. .** - Price that is marked on an article is known as its Marked Price (M.P.) or the list price.
- Discount =
**M.P – S.P**

**Profit and Loss Formulae**

- Discount = Marked Price (M.P.) – Selling Price (S.P.)
- Gain % = (Gain/C.P.) * 100
- Loss % = (Loss/C.P.) * 100
- Selling Price (S.P) = [(100 + Gain %) / 100)] * C.P.
- Selling Price (S.P) = [(100 – Loss %) / 100)] * C.P.
- Cost Price (C.P) = [100 / (100 + Gain %)] * S.P.
- Cost Price (C.P) = [100 / (100 – Loss%)] * S.P.
- If an article sold at a gain of 10%, then S.P. = 110% of C.P.
- If an article sold at a gainof 78%, then S.P. = 178% of C.P.
- If an article sold at a gain of x %, then S.P. = (100+x) % of C.P.
- If an article sold at a loss of 10%, then S.P. = (100-10) % of C.P.
- If an article sold at a loss of x%, then S.P. = (100-x) % of C.P.

**Profit and Loss Tips**

- The Marked Price (M.P.) is different from the Selling (S.P.),because a shopkeeper has the sole authority/discretion to decide if he wants tosell a product at the Listed Price (L.P.)/Marked Price (M.P.) or at a pricelower than that, in which case there would be a discount.
- Profits and losses are always calculated on the basis of the cost price of the product.
- When two items are sold at the same S.P with one being sold at x% profit & the other being sold at x% loss, then there is an overall loss percentage that is given by
**(x**^{2}/ 100) %.

Few examples are shared below:

**Q. A machine is sold at a profit of 10%. Had it been sold for Rs. 80 less, there would have been a loss of 10%. The cost price of the machine is: **

** Q2. The marked price of a trouser is Rs. 690. The shopkeeper allows a discount of 10% and gains 8%. If no discount is allowed, his gain per cent would be **

**Q3. X sells table and chair forRs. 4,000 each with no loss and no gain in the overall transaction. If the table was sold at a gain of 25% then calculate the loss occurred on selling the chair.**

**Q4. The cost price of 19 articles is same as selling price of 29 articles. What is the loss percentage? **

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