What are Properties of Material? NCERT Science Class 6
PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL
NCERT Science Class 6 – Properties of Material – A material is any substance or mixture of substances that occupy a volume and has a mass. A substance usually refers to the pure compound. Appearance, behavior, name, structure, color, order, composition and any information about a substance are properties of a material.
In our day to day life, we use so many objects that are made of different Material. Some objects are made of more than one material like soaps. Some objects can be made from different materials like plastic while different objects can be made from the same material as table and chair made of wood.
Importance of grouping
Objects are differentiated on the basis of its nature like shapes, properties, and material. Grouping objects on the basis of its properties make studies convenient. It can be grouped on the basis of similarities or differences.
Common properties that are used to group the objects are as follows
1) Lustre – materials can be grouped on the basis of lustre and dullness possessed by them. Lustrous materials are shiny while non-lustrous materials are dull. Example- lustrous materials are like gold, silver etc. and non – lustrous materials are like wood, plastic etc.
2) Hard/Softness– soft materials can easily be compressed or scratched. For example, cotton. Those materials are not easy to compress are hard materials like iron.
- a) Transparent materials – those materials through which light can be passed completely. It is easy to see through them like glass.
- b) Opaque materials– those materials through which light cannot be passed completely. You cannot see through them like wood, cardboard etc.
- c) Translucent materials – those materials through which light can be passed partially. It is partially opaque and transparent like frosted glass.
4) State– objects are made of matter and matter exist in three states-
- a) Solid state– all solid substance have solid states. Solids have a definite shape and volume. Such materials cannot be compressed. Particles in solid are closely packed and it cannot flow.
- b) Liquid state– all liquid substance have liquid states. Liquids do not have a definite shape but it can take the shape of the container. It has a definite volume. Such materials can be compressed to some extent.
- c) Gaseous State-all gaseous substance has a gaseous state. Such substance does not have definite shape and volume. They are highly compressible and particles in it are closely packed.
The soluble substance is completely soluble in water and forms a single layer of water like lemon juice, vinegar etc.
Insoluble substances are not soluble in water and form the distinctive layer with water like mustard oil, kerosene etc.
6) Float/Sink-Material either flow or sink in water. Light materials like a paper float in water while heavy material like the metal sink in water.
7) Magnetic attraction– materials that are attracted towards magnet like iron.
8) Heat conduction –materials through which heat can be passed like metals. Such materials are good conductors of heat. Materials through which heat cannot be passed are the bad conductor of heat like plastic.
9) Electricity conduction– Materials through which electricity is conducted. For example- metals are the good conductor of heat. Materials through which electricity cannot be passed are known as insulators like plastic (bad conductor of electricity.
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