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Plant Used For Treating Diabetes

 Antidiabetic agents of Plant origin


3.1   Medicinal plants used to treat diabetes
Plants have always been very good sources of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethnobotanical information suggests that about 800 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential, among all of them Momordica charantia, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Trigonella foenum greacum have been reported to be beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes. (Jung M et al, 2006) Several such herbs have shown anti-diabetic activitis when evaluated using different types of experimental techniques. A wide array of plant’s active principles representing different type of biological activity, among these alkaloids, glycosides, galactomannan gun, polysaccharides, peptidoglycans, hypoglycans, guanidine, steroids, carbohydrates, glycopeptides, terpenoids, amino acids and inorganic ions have demonstrated activities including treatment of diabetes. List of the medicinal plants having antidiabetic potential according to the different parts used and modes of action are presented in Table 3.1 and Table3.2
Table 3.1
List of plants having antidiabetic activities
S. No.
Plant part
Name of plants
1
Aerial parts
Artemisia pallens, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Teramnus labialis
2
Bark
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Croton cajucara
3
Bulb
Allium cepa, Allium sativum
4
Flower
Cassia auriculata, Gentiana olivier, Musa sapientum
5
Fruit
Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Embellica officinalis, Juniperus communis, Momordica charantia, Xanthium strumarium
6
Leaves
Aloe barbadensis, Annona squamosa, Averrhoa bilimbi, Azadirachta indica, Beta vulgaris, Camellia sinensis, Cassia alata, Eclipta alba, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphrasia officinale, Ficus carica, Gymnema sylvestre, Gynura procumbens, Ipomoea aquatica, Mangifera indica, Myrtus communis, Memecylon umbellatum, Morus indica, Ocimum sanctum
7
Rhizome
Nelumbo nucifera
8
Roots
Clausena anisata, Glycerrhiza glabra, Helicteres isora, Pandanus odorus
9
Seed
Acacia arabica, Agrimony eupatoria, Lupinus albus, Luffa aegyptiaca, Lepidium sativum, Mucuna pruriens, Punica granatum
10
Stem
Amaranthus spinosus, Coscinium fenestratum
11
Tubers
Ipomoea batata
12
Whole plant
Abies pindrow, Achyranthus aspera, Ajauga iva, Aloe vera, Anacardium occidentale, Andrographis paniculata, Capsicum frutescens, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Enicostemma littorale, Ficus religiosa
Table 2
List of plants having Insulin mimetic or insulin secretory activities
S. No.
Plant botanical name
Common name
Family
Mechanism of action
1
Abies pindrow
Morinda
Pinaceae
Insulin secretagogue activity
2
Acacia arabica
Babool
Leguminosae
Release of insulin from pancrease
3
Agrimony eupatoria
Rosaceae
Leaves
Insulin releasing and insulin like activity
4
Aloe barbadensis
Gheequar
Liliaceae
Stimulating synthesis and release of insulin
5
Annona squamosa
Sharifa
Annonaceae
Increased plasma insulin level
6
Averrhoa bilimbi
Bilimbi
Oxalidaceae
Increase serum insulin level
7
Bixa orellana
Annotta
Bixaceae
Increase plasma insulin concentration and increase insulin binding on insulin receptor
8
Boerhaavia diffusa
Punamava
Nyctaginaceae
Increase plasma insulin concentration
9
Camellia sinensis
Green tea
Theaceae
Increase insulin secretion
10
Capsicum frutescens
Mirch
Solanaceae
Increase insulin secretion and reduction of insulin binding on the insulin receptor
11
Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Dalchini
Lauraceae
Elevation in plasma insulin level
12
Clausena anisata
Rutaceae
Stimulate secretion of insulin
13
Eucalyptus globulus
Eucalyptus
Myrtaceae
Increase insulin secretion from clonal pancreatic beta line (BRIN-BD 11)
14
Ficus religiosa
Peepal
Moraceae
Initiating release of insulin
15
Hibiscus rosa
Gudhal
Malvaceae
Stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells
16
Helicteres isora
Indian screw tree
Sterculiaceae
Decrease plasma triglyceride level and insulin sensitizing activity
17
Ipomoea batata
Shakarkand
Convolvulaceae
Reduce insulin resistance and blood glucose level
18
Juniperus communis
Hauber
Pinaceae
Increase peripheral glucose consumption and induce insulin secretion
19
Olea europia
Olive
Oleaceae
Increase insulin release and increase peripheral uptake of glucose
20
Swertia chirayata
Chirayata
Gentianaceae
Stimulates insulin release from islets
21
Scoparia dulcis
Mithi patti
Scrophulariaceae
Insulin-secretagogue activity
22
Tinospora crispa
Giloe
Menispermaceae
Anti-hyperglycemic, stimulates insulin release from islets
23
Urtifca dioica
Bichhu booti
Urticaceae
Increase insulin secretion
24
Vinca rosea
Sadabahar
Apocynaceae
Beta cell rejuvenation, regeneration and stimulation
25
Zingiber officinale
Adrak
Zingiberaceae
Increase insulin level and decrease fasting glucose level
           
Tables 3.1 and 3.2 from Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

3.2 Pharmacologically screened insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues plant material and phytoconstituents
The aim of this review is to collect the data available on plants material having hypoglycemic activity through either increased secretion of insulin from the pancreas or similar action as reported in different sources of literature. According to the search, several plant species have been described as ‘hypoglycemic’ such as Opuntia streptacantha, Trigonella foenum graecum, Momordica charantia, Ficus bengalensis, Polygala senega, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Citrullus colocynthis and Aloe vera. The focus of the present review is concentrated on the experimental studies performed on hypoglycemic activities of the plant material and the bioactive components related to the secretion of insulin or its action. Here all the plant materials which are listed were tested for their insulinomimetic or secretogogue activities in the different in vivo or in vitro model systems. Moreover, phytoconstituents isolated from different plants which have shown insulinomimetic activty are also represented in table 3.3 below
Table 3.3
List of plants phytoconstituents having insulin secretagogue or insulin mimetic activity.
S. No.
Plant botanical name
Family
Active constituents

1
Aloe vera
Liliaceae
Pseudoprototinosaponin AIII and prototinosaponins AIII

2
Anemarrhena asphodeloides


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Plant Used For Treating Diabetes

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