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POLYCYTHEMIA PDF.

Tags: polycythemia
ABSTRACT
Polycythemia literally means too many red blood cells. It is the unrestrained production of red blood cell leading to excessive red blood cell in a circulating blood. Polycythemia is broadly classified as relative and absolute polycythemia. Absolute polycythemia is divided into two (2) types which are primary and secondary Polycythemia. Primary polycythemia is erythropoietin independent and arises from multipotent heamatopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Secondary polycythemia is erythropoietin (EPO) dependent and it is caused by excessive stimulation of red blood cell production. Secondary polycythemia can be subdivided into physiologically appropriate and physiologically inappropriate polycythemia. Physiologically appropriate polycythemia is due to generalized tissue hypoxia while physiologically inappropriate polycythemia is due to tumours in the liver and kidney cells leading to the excessive production of erythropoietin. The causes of polycythemia include the following: gene mutation, chronic apoxia, 2, 3 BPG deficiency, smoking and excessive intake of alcohol. The signs and symptoms of polycythemia include headache, dizziness, blurred vision, discomfort in the abdomen, epistaxis and red skin. Diagnosis usually involves carrying out packed cell volume test which determines the percentage composition of red blood cell in the blood. The normal packed cell volume (PCV) for men is 38-54% while that of women is 36-48%. The percentage of packed cell volume in children (50-60%) is usually higher and that of women. Bone marrow examination can also be used to diagnose polycythemia. The effects of polycythemia usually involve blood clotting, arterial pressure and change in the skin colour. Other effects include: headache, blurred vision, dizziness, abdominal discomfort and skin rashes. Prevention of polycythemia involves avoiding those life styles that deprive the body tissue adequate supply of oxygen such as smoking, and high mountain climbing. Polycythemia can be treated by using the following drugs interferon –α, low dose of  hydroxycarbamide. Phlebotomy is also used in treating polycythemia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Dedication
Acknowledgment
Table of contents
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.0 Definition and Overview of Polycythemia
1.1 Classes of Polycythemia
1.1.1 Relative Polycythemia
1.1.2 Absolute Polycythemia
1.1.2.1 Primary Polycythemia
1.1.2.2 Secondary Polycythemia
CHAPTER TWO : CAUSES OF POLYCYTHEMIA
2.1 Gene Mutations
2.2 Chronic Apoxia
2.3 Deficiency of 2,3-BPG
2.4 Tumours
2.5 Smoking
 CHAPTER THREE: DIAGNOSES, SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF POLYCYTHEMIA
3.1 Signs and Symptoms of Polycythemia
3.2 Diagnoses of Polycythemia
3.2.1 The Haematocrit  
3.2.2 Bone Marrow Examination
CHAPTER FOUR: EFFECTS OF POLYCYTHEMIA
4.1 Blood Clotting
4.2 Arterial Pressure
4.3 Skin Colour
4.4 Other Effects
CHAPTER FIVE: PREVENTION, TREATMENT ,CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF POLYCYTHEMIA
5.1 Prevention of Polycythemia
5.2 Treatment of Polycythemia
5.3 Control and Management of Polycythemia
5.4 Conclusion
    References


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POLYCYTHEMIA PDF.

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