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STUDY OF THE FISH FAUNA AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF IKPOBA RIVER AT BENIN CITY EDO STATE.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1      Introduction
Water is essential in life, it is important to both plant and animal. It supports a vast variety of life and provides home for many living organisms. It is important for the survival and distribution of Fish. The physico­chemical characteristics of water play a large role in determining the fish fauna in a water body.  Physicochemical parameters of a water body are those physical and chemical factors that affect water quality. Parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients have biological significance and are used as population indicators (Grace, 2015). A good water quality supports and provides good comfort for large diversity of fish species. Aquatic organisms need a healthy environment to live and have adequate nutrients for their growth. Quality of water refers to the component of water, which is to be present at the optimum level for suitable growth of plants and animals. Fish productivity depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the water body which also affects the fish fauna. Temperature for example is crucial in the movement and distribution of fish and this is usually more noticeable in the temperate regions where there is marked variation in the seasonal changes of temperature (Araoye, 2009).  High and low temperatures that are lethal to individual organism of a species determines the distribution and abundance of its populations this is because fish that cannot survive or tolerate a particular temperature tends to migrate to a favourable habitat leaving those that can tolerate the temperature range behind. Not only that temperature affects the distribution of fish, it also affects directly or indirectly other limnological parameters such as dissolved gases, transparency, viscosity, pH, Total dissolve solids and conductivity (Araoye, 2009). These parameters in turn affects the distribution and abundance of fish. Water temperature controls the rate of all chemical reactions, and affects fish growth, reproduction and immunity (Mulongaibalu et al. 2014). The biota can be affected in many ways by Changes in water quality and river habitat and can impact stream-resident fishes as well as migratory species (Joanna and Daniel, 2002).

Fish fauna of a water body simply mean the diversity and population of fish (Kantaraj et al., 2011). It is the different type of fish species and their population that is present in a given water body. Some factors such as irrational fishing practices, degradation of the environment like increased sedimentation, increasing drought, water abstraction, and pollution for long period of time have reduced the diversity of fish and some species have been lost from the freshwater ecosystem and the number of some fish are being threatened (Kantaraj et al., 2011). Effluents from industries are being discharged into most rivers in urban areas of developing countries (Patil et al., 2012). Ikpoba river of Edo state Nigeria is not an exception to that as the river is located very close to the Guinness brewery, the water receives pollutant from the company, this effluent tends to alter the biotic and abiotic condition of the river and hence the fish fauna in the water body. 
1.1.1     Justification of the work
Different works had been carried out on the river to determine the physico-chemical parameters of the river. Beckley et al.(2014) studied physicochemical and microbial properties of waste water discharged into the Ikpoba rivers as well as water samples obtained from the river at different points of collection. Etiosa and Agho (2006) in participation in the world water monitoring day studied the physicochemical parameters of the river.Ogbeibu and Oribhabor (2001) studied the water quality, the ecological impact of stream regulation using benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators designed to investigate all possible anthropogenic impacts on the water quality and fauna of the Ikpoba River. Ekhaise and Anyansi (2005) reported high counts of bacterial population in the River.
Majority of the works carried out on the river is centered mostly on just the physicochemical parameter of the river, much works has not been documented on the effect of the physicochemical parameter of the water on fish distribution in the river. This is where the zeal for this study was borne. Having earlier noted that the Ikpoba River receives effluents from a brewery industry, it is important to critically study the effect of water quality characteristics on the fish population and diversity of Ikpoba river, for proper sustainability and decision-making process.
1.1.2     Objectives of studies
The objectives of this study were to:
1. Determine the physicochemical parameter of the river
2.  Assess the fish fauna of the river, composition and abundance        
3. Determine the effect of physicochemical parameter of the river on fishes and their distribution
1.2           Literature Review
 Many works have been published on the test for the effect of physicochemical characteristics of different water body on the distribution of fish. Daniel et al. (2013) states that several parameters influence the distribution of both the juveniles and adults of fish species.  Dhirendra et al. (2009) noted that when a river is polluted, the chemical quality is first affected before the community is systematically destroyed. He went further to state that to shape a sound public policy and to implement the water quality improvement programs efficiently, accurate and timely information on the quality of water is necessary. Aftab et al. (2005) studied various physicochemical parameters and analysis of untreated fertilizer effluent. His result revealed that parameters like Electrical conductivity, Total Dissolve Solid, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and ammonia are high compared to permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board CPCB (1995). Dey et al. (2005) while studying the various physicochemical parameters on the samples drawn from the river Koel, Shankha and Brahmani, observed that dilution during rainy season decreases the metal concentration level to a considerable extent. Premlata (2009) studied the physicochemical characteristics of the Pichhola lake, various water parameters like air and water temperature, pH, free CO2, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, total alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate were studied. The results revealed that the values of conductivity, Chemical Oxygen Demand, and sulphate were found to cross the standard limits in water samples. The coefficient of correlation (r) among various physicochemical parameters was also made. Gupta et al. (2009) analyzed water samples from 20 sampling points of Kaithal for their physicochemical characteristics. Analysis of samples for pH, Colour, Odour, Hardness, Chloride, Alkalinity and Total Dissolve Solid were carried out, on comparing the results obtained against drinking water quality standards laid by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and World Health Organization (WHO), it was found that some of the water samples are non-potable for human being due to high concentration of one or the other parameter. Saravanakumar and Ranjith (2011) presents paper studies about groundwater quality of Ambattur industrial area in Chennai City. They studied parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, total hardness, turbidity, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, total dissolved solids and conductivity. It was observed that there was a slight fluctuation in the physicochemical parameters among the water samples studied. Comparison of the physicochemical parameters of the water sample with World Health Organization (WHO) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) limits showed that the groundwater is highly contaminated and account for health hazards for human use. Manjare et al. (2010)studied the Physicochemical Parameters of Tamadalge Water Tank in Kolhapur District, Maharashtra, monthly Changes in Physical and Chemical Parameters Such as Water Temperature, Transparency, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Free Carbon dioxide, and Total Hardness, Chlorides, Alkalinity, Phosphate and Nitrates were analyzed for a period of one year. The results obtained were within the Permissible limits and the results indicate that the tank is non-polluted and can be used for Domestic and Irrigation purposes. Mulongaibalu et al. (2014) studied the water quality standards of river Ishasha and lake Edward to demonstrate their ability to support fish species in selected sites. In their studies, the mean values of the parameters remained within the permissible limits of water quality standards for most aquatic species. Venkatesharaju et al. (2010) states that the maintenance of healthy aquatic ecosystem is dependent on the physicochemical properties and biological diversity. Aghoghovwia (2011) studied the Physicochemical Parameters of Warri river in Niger delta region of Nigeria, the values recorded in his studies were lower than those reported by Egborge (1994) respectively on the Warri River but higher than those documented by Ogbeibu and Ezeunara (2002) for Ikpoba River in Benin City. He went further to state that the result was because of the several industries, sawmills and market along the shores of the Warri River which are more compared to Ikpoba River in Benin City which is bounded by the Nigerian brewery as the only industry that discharges effluents and pollutant into the river. He further stated that Gas flaring as well as release of carbon by vehicles, industries that depend on generating sets owing to poor supply of power from the nation’s energy sector in and around Warri may have generated acid rains. Ogbeibu and Edutie (2002) studied the physical properties of Ikpoba river and they review that increased total dissolve solid (TDS), turbidity, NaCl, reduced transparency and dissolved oxygen indicate inefficient effluent treatment in the brewery.
1.3 Physicochemical Parameters of Water.
1.3.1 Temperature
The flow of heat and fluctuation of temperature determines species that will live and thrive in a water. As such it influences the chosen habitat of a variety of aquatic life (Fondriest, 2014).  Fish may locate farther.............. Continue


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STUDY OF THE FISH FAUNA AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF IKPOBA RIVER AT BENIN CITY EDO STATE.

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