Conceptual impressions surrounding this post are yet to be substantiated, corroborated, confirmed or woven into a larger argument or network.
Belief is the attitude that something is the case or true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or false ideas and concepts. However, "belief" does not require active introspection and circumspection.
Primmer, Justin (2018), "Belief", in Primmer, Justin (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford, CA: The Metaphysics Research Lab, retrieved 19 September 2008
In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. They are complex and are an acquired state through experiences. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value and it is precipitated through a responsive expression towards oneself, a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object) which in turn influences the individual's thought and action. Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport described this latent psychological construct as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology." Attitude can be formed from a person's past and present. Key topics in the study of attitudes include attitude strength, attitude change, consumer behavior, and attitude-behavior relationships.
Richard M. Perloff, The Dynamics of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes in the Twenty-First Century, Routledge, 2016.
1. ^ PhilPapers, Responsibility and Reactive Attitudes
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Allport, Gordon. (1935). "Attitudes," in A Handbook of Social Psychology, ed. C. Murchison. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, 789–844.
3. ^ Lynn R. Kahle, Pierre Valette-Florence (2012). Marketplace Lifestyles in an Age of Social Media. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7656-2561-8.
4. ^ Elizabeth A. Minton, Lynn R. Khale (2014). Belief Systems, Religion, and Behavioral Economics. New York: Business Expert Press LLC. ISBN 978-1-60649-704-3.
An observer/perceiver may dispute or accept a particular observation. An observer can likewise show certain mixed feelings about what is being observed or experienced. What is being observed may or may not affect the observer. However, every situation encountered is symbolic in essence meaning, what is actively or passively being observed is made cognizant by virtue of calibrating and recalibrating a series of impressions made upon the psyche of the observer. These impressions may be mental, emotional or physical in nature.
impression | imˈpreSHən | noun 1 an idea, feeling, or opinion about something or someone, especially one formed without conscious thought or on the basis of little evidence: his first impressions of Manchester were very positive | they give the impression that all is sweetness and light. • an effect produced on someone: her courtesy and quick wit had made a good impression. • a difference made by the action or presence of someone or something: the floor was too dirty for the mop to make much impression.
Every observation therefore, must be considered a debatable issue. Every observer is naturally affected by what is observed. There is a certain degree of emotion or “feeling” related to all that we perceive (Kama Manas). And it’s upon these impressions that many conclusions are made.
conclusion | kənˈklo͞oZHən | noun 1 the end or finish of an event or process: the conclusion of World War Two. • the summing-up of an argument or text. • the settling or arrangement of a treaty or agreement: the conclusion of a free-trade accord. 2 a judgment or decision reached by reasoning: each research group came to a similar conclusion. • Logic a proposition that is reached from given premises.
Observation create a framework from which other observations are made. Such a framework can influence future encounters by virtue of symbolic categorization, interpretation, discernment and memory. Humanity’s inclination to observe the world scientifically attempts to classify phenomenon into categories, areas of concentration and specific impressions.
However, the concept of observation harbors a wide variety of interpretations especially when considering the categories of deductive, inductive and abductive reasoning. All rational and irrational methods of thinking are symbolic in character. Observation is psychological and dependent upon values, beliefs, perceptions and attitude.
“Values are ideals, guiding principles in one's life, or overarching goals that people strive to obtain (Maio & Olson, 1998). Beliefs are cognitions about the world—subjective probabilities that an object has a particular attribute or that an action will lead to a particular outcome (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Beliefs can be patently and unequivocally false. For example, surveys show that a third of U.S. adults think that vaccines cause autism, despite the preponderance of scientific research to the contrary (Dixon et al., 2015). It was found that beliefs like these are tenaciously held and highly resistant to change. Another important factor that affects attitude* is symbolic interactionism, these are rife with powerful symbols and charged with affect which can lead to a selective perception.”
* My definition of an “observer” is synonymous with the psychological construct defining attitude.
11. "Here's How Many Americans Believe Vaccines Are Unsafe". Time. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
12.^ Dixon, Graham; Mckeever, Brooke; Holton, Avery; Clarke, Chris; Eosco, Gina (9 May 2015). "The Power of a Picture: Overcoming Scientific Misinformation by Communicating Weight-of-Evidence Information with Visual Exemplars: The Power of a Picture". Journal of Communication. 65 (4): 639–659. doi:10.1111/jcom.12159. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018 – via ResearchGate.
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images and normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others. In other words, it is a frame of reference to better understand how individuals interact with one another to create symbolic worlds, and in return, how these worlds shape individual behaviors. It is a framework that helps understand how society is preserved and created through repeated interactions between individuals. The interpretation process that occurs between interactions helps create and recreate meaning. It is the shared understanding and interpretations of meaning that affect the interaction between individuals. Individuals act on the premise of a shared understanding of meaning within their social context. Thus, interaction and behavior is framed through the shared meaning that objects and concepts have attached to them. From this view, people live in both natural and symbolic environments.”
West, Richard L.; Turner, Lynn H. Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application (6th ed.). New York. ISBN 9781259870323. OCLC 967775008.
“Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation.”
“Attitudes (observations) and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and cognitive components. Attitudes (observations) are part of the brain's associative networks, the spider-like structures residing in long-term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes.
By activating an affective or emotion node, attitude (observational) change may be possible, though affective and cognitive components tend to be intertwined. In primarily affective networks, it is more difficult to produce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude (observational) change.” (my parenthesis)
“With every thought a meaning and every meaning a thought.”
A belief system is an ideology or set of principles that helps us to interpret our everyday reality. This could be in the form of religion, political affiliation, philosophy, or spirituality, among many other things. These beliefs are shaped and influenced by a number of different factors.
Three key elements of belief systems
Homeostasis: belief systems are constantly striving towards reaching a state of equilibrium. This is a state in which the elements of the system only have contradictions that do not affect the stability of the system as a whole. A state of relative congruence.
Self-regulation: belief systems have the capability to adapt themselves to the external conditions in which they are placed. In that sense, the system is capable of reaching a state of congruence regardless of the circumstances through a constant feedback mechanism between internal beliefs and external factors.
Autopoiesis: belief systems are capable of reproducing and maintaining themselves. This goes beyond the capability of mere self-regulation in the sense that it has the ability to change quite significantly and become significantly more complex as part of this process.” Tim Rettig
An observer approaches every situation with a set of beliefs, some of which have been ingrained into his/her consciousness as being true. The context in which these beliefs are made to function may or may not parallel the feelings and inclinations that support an observer’s particular POV. These “feelings” are emotional in context, describe a particular internal awareness and can only be subjectively interpreted, described and communicated. No one is truly privy to what, or how another individual feels.
feeling | ˈfēliNG | noun 1 an emotional state or reaction: a feeling of joy. • (feelings) the emotional side of someone's character; emotional responses or tendencies to respond: I don't want to hurt her feelings. • strong emotion: “God bless you!” she said with feeling. 2 a belief, especially a vague or irrational one: [with clause] : he had the feeling that he was being watched. • an opinion, typically one shared by several people: a feeling grew that justice had not been done. 3 the capacity to experience the sense of touch: a loss of feeling in the hands. • the sensation of touching or being touched by a particular thing: the feeling of water against your skin. 4 (feeling for) a sensitivity to or intuitive understanding of: he seems to have little feeling for art. adjective showing emotion or sensitivity: he had a warm and feeling heart.
According to definition, a feeling can be interpreted in a number of ways. Feeling is a term used to describe both an emotional and physical impression with one being more tangible than the other depending upon the circumstances. The mind doesn’t feel anything, but rather communicates the impression by virtue of its capacity to do so.
A feeling generally leans towards opinion whether supported by evidence or not. An opinion gives expression to a feeling unsubstantiated by fact, knowledge or understanding and whose evidence subjectively rests within the experience/consciousness of the observer.
Opinion noun she did not share her husband's opinion: belief, judgment, thought(s), (way of) thinking, mind, (point of) view, viewpoint, outlook, attitude, stance, position, perspective, persuasion, standpoint; sentiment, conception, conviction. PHRASES a matter of opinion whether his art is worthy of an exhibition is a matter of opinion: debatable, open to question, open to debate, a moot point, up to the individual. be of the opinion we are of the opinion that his poetry lacks insight: believe, think, consider, maintain, reckon, estimate, feel, have a/the feeling, contend, be convinced; informal allow; formal opine.in my opinion in my opinion, the green tiles clash with the yellow walls: as I see it, to my mind, (according) to my way of thinking, personally, in my estimation, if you ask me, for my money, in my book.
Feelings are very intuitive in nature. Interestingly enough, feelings also seem to dominate the definition of the Intuition.
intuition | ˌint(y)o͞oˈiSH(ə)n | noun the ability to understand something immediately, without the need for conscious reasoning: we shall allow our intuition to guide us. • a thing that one knows or considers likely from instinctive feeling rather than conscious reasoning: your insights and intuitions as a native speaker are positively sought.
According to definition, the intuition is not necessarily privy to reason, but is instinctual.
instinct noun | ˈinstiNG(k)t | an innate, typically fixed pattern of behavior in animals in response to certain stimuli: birds have an instinct to build nests | maternal instincts. • a natural or intuitive way of acting or thinking they retain their old authoritarian instincts. • a natural propensity or skill of a specified kind: his instinct for making the most of his chances. • the fact or quality of possessing innate behavior patterns: instinct told her not to ask the question.
instinctual | inˈstiNG(k)(t)SH(o͞o)əl | adjective relating to or denoting an innate, typically fixed pattern of behavior; based on instinct: an instinctual survival response | instinctual maternal behavior.
The intuition, however, has shown itself to be more than just instinctual. The intuition also seems to harbor certain facts, knowledge, understanding and at times wisdom. The intuition describes a branch of consciousness that embraces all types of thinking and feeling. When appropriately implemented the intuition can induce, deduce and abductively synthesize every aspect of human thinking and reasoning. The intuition is an integration of every characteristic attributable to thinking and reasoning, i.e. the mind in reference to feeling and cognitive feelings made in reference to the mind. In actuality, the intuition is a cohesive attribute and active contributor to every observation. In reference to this argument, the intuition IS a “fixed pattern of behavior”.
All reasoning participates in and is an integral part of the construct called the intuition. The intuition is at the core of all reason.