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Hypo-tension: Symptoms, causes, and prevention

What is it

The  hypotension  is the technical name of a  low blood pressure . It occurs when the  beating of the heart, in charge of pumping the blood to the rest of the body, has a slower rhythm than usual . For this reason, neither the brain, nor the heart nor the rest of the body receives the necessary blood, which can lead to dizziness and fainting.


There are many factors that cause Hypotension. First, it can produce because the physiological mechanisms that maintain Blood Pressure do not work properly and transmits  signals  so  incorrect .

It is common to be manifested when an individual is a long period of time standing and affects especially young people and children. When  acute bleeding occurs  , it is very likely that the patient has hypotension.

Other times it is caused by the ingestion of  drugs, such  as alcohol, painkillers, medications used for surgery, diuretics, etc. It can also occur because the patient has different  arrhythmias , dehydration, anaphylaxis or  decompensated diabetes .


The symptoms suffered by people suffering from this condition are usually:

  • Blurry vision.
  • Giddiness .
  • Dizziness
  • Somnolence and momentary bewilderment.
  • Weakness.
  • Confusion and even loss of knowledge.
  • Fainting or fainting.
  • Nausea and vomiting.


There are simple methods that prevent the reduction of blood pressure. One is to drink a lot of  fluid  to avoid dehydration.

However, you should try to do without alcoholic beverages . In addition, there are  averages, generally known as compression, which pressure the legs and facilitate the increase in blood pressure. On the other hand, it is also important to avoid sudden incorporation  when sitting or lying down; or standing and standing for long periods of time.


Among the types from which this disease is classified are:

  • Orthostatic hypotension : Is the one that occurs from a sudden change in body posture .
    Among the most common changes that cause this condition is that the patient goes from lying down to standing very quickly.
    This lowering of tension only lasts a few seconds or minutes .
  • Postprandial orthostatic hypotension : In this case, the cause is in the previous type, with the added feature that it occurs after eating.
    This type most often affects older adults, those with high blood pressure or those with Parkinson’s .
  • Neurally mediated hypotension : This is the name for the lack of coordination between the pumping of the heart and the brain. It is characterized by sudden drops in blood pressure. Patients have a tendency to not be able to stay upright for a long time.
  • Severe hypotension: It can be caused by a sudden loss of blood , an infection that is serious, a heart attack , an allergic reaction with intense character, various arrhythmias, drug use, etc.


To determine if this condition occurs, the specialist will perform tests that will help diagnose the symptoms. The first thing that will take place will be the monitoring of vital signs , such as temperature, pulse, respiratory rate and blood pressure.

It is possible that after performing these tests, the patient must remain hospitalized for a while.

In addition to this test, other tests may be performed:

  • Analysis of the basic metabolism.
  • Blood cultures to determine if there is any other type of infection.
  • Complete blood count (hemogram).
  • Urine analysis
  • X-ray of the abdomen .
  • X-ray of the thorax .


Hypotension usually does not need treatment, although sometimes it does require  medical assistance , depending on the symptoms. For example, if hypotension is the cause of a  shock in urgent need of medical care that will provide blood serum or via  intravenous and prescribe medications for blood pressure to rise.

If it is an orthostatic hypotension caused by the supply of  drugs , the doctor will change or modify the prescribed amount.

When the patient has symptoms of a fall in blood pressure, it is advisable to sit or lie down immediately. You should also raise your feet above the heart.

People suffering from neurally mediated hypotension should avoid standing for a prolonged period of time.

If the hypotension is caused by rising suddenly it is recommended to drink lots of liquids or use compression stockings to prevent blood from accumulating in the legs.

Other data

Complications may arise from this disease that are more serious than the condition itself, for example, falls due to a drop in pressure in older adults can cause a hip fracture or a fracture of the spine .

Sudden and severe drops in blood pressure deprive the body of oxygen, which can cause, in certain cases, heart or neurological damage .

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