What are the rights of the child?
The rights of the child are a set of conditions that aim to protect Children until they reach 18 years of age. These are inalienable and inalienable, so there is no possibility of violating or ignoring them under any circumstances. These rights are included in documents such as the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of the Child .
According to the United Nations Children’s Fund ( UNICEF ), children’s rights are based on four foundations:
- The non – discrimination for any reason: race, sex, religion or origin.
- The best interests of the child: Any decision, law, or policy that may affect children must take into account what is best for the child.
- Right to life, survival and development : All children have the right to live and have an adequate development.
- The participation: Minors are entitled to be consulted about situations that affect them and their views taken into account.
Declaration of the rights of the child
The Declaration of the Rights of the Child is an international treaty that includes the rights of children under 18 years of age. This agreement was signed on November 20, 1959 by the 78 members who were then members of the United Nations ( UN ). This declaration is based on the Geneva Declaration on the Rights of the Child, signed in 1924, being the first historical text that recognized the rights of children.
Despite being an approved declaration, as it was not mandatory, many countries did not comply with it, and so the Convention on the Rights of the Child was carried out years later.
The ten rights that make up this statement are:
- The child will enjoy all the rights set forth in this Declaration. These rights will be recognized to all children without exception or distinction or discrimination based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, economic position, birth or other condition, whether of the child himself or his family.
- The minor will enjoy special protection and will have opportunities and services , dispensed all by law and by other means, so that he can develop physically, mentally, morally, spiritually and socially in a healthy and normal way, as well as in conditions of freedom and dignity . When enacting laws for this purpose, the fundamental consideration to be addressed will be the best interests of the child.
- The infant is entitled from birth to a name and a nationality .
- The child must enjoy the benefits of social security . You will have the right to grow and develop in good health; To this end, both he and his mother must be provided with special care, including prenatal and postnatal care. The child shall have the right to enjoy adequate food, shelter, recreation and medical services .
- The child who is physically or mentally incapacitated or who suffers from a social impediment must receive the special treatment, education and care that his or her particular case requires.
- The child, for the full and harmonious development of his personality, needs love and understanding . Whenever possible, it should grow under the protection and under the responsibility of its parents and, in any case, in an environment of affection and moral and material security; Except in exceptional circumstances, the young child should not be separated from his mother. The society and public authorities will have the obligation to take special care of children without family or who lack adequate means of subsistence . For the maintenance of the children of large families it is convenient to grant state or other subsidies.
- The child has the right to receive education , which will be free and compulsory at least in the elementary stages . He will be given an education that favors his general culture and allows him, in conditions of equal opportunities, to develop his aptitudes and his individual judgment, his sense of moral and social responsibility, and to become a useful member of society.
The best interests of the child should be the guiding principle of those who are responsible for their education and guidance; This responsibility falls, in the first place, on their parents. The child should fully enjoy games and recreations, which should be oriented towards the goals pursued by education; society and public authorities will endeavor to promote the enjoyment of this right.
- The child must, in all circumstances, be among the first to receive protection and assistance .
- The child must be protected against all forms of abandonment, cruelty and exploitation . It will not be subjected to any kind of trafficking. The child should not be allowed to work before an appropriate minimum age ; in no case will be dedicated or allowed to engage in any occupation or employment that may harm their health or education or prevent their physical, mental or moral development .
- The child must be protected against practices that may encourage racial, religious or other discrimination . He must be educated in a spirit of understanding, tolerance, friendship among peoples, peace and universal fraternity, and fully aware that he must devote his energies and aptitudes to the service of his fellowmen.
Children’s rights convention
The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CNR) is an international treaty that includes the rights of children and contains 54 articles. The text was approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on November 20, 1989 and entered into force on September 2, 1990. It is a legally binding agreement, so it is mandatory for all countries that ratify it.
The 54 articles of this treatise collect all the social, cultural, economic, civil and political rights of children. It also defines the obligations and responsibility of the agents responsible for the child: parents, teachers, health professionals … Currently, it has been accepted by all countries in the world, except the United States, according to UNICEF.
The articles that make up this convention are an extension of the rights of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, in addition to the aggregation of new ones:
- The basic rights , contemplated in the first articles, advocate non-discrimination, the best interests of the child and the protection of the child (Articles 1-4).
- With respect to the family , this agreement defends the right of parents to provide guidance to their children as they see fit, the right of minors to live and maintain contact with one or both parents, to leave and enter the country for family reasons or to receive Government help for their upbringing (Articles 5, 9, 10, 18, 20, 21).
- In terms of expression and information , they have the right to free expression, freedom to obtain and disseminate information (Articles 12-17).
- Children are entitled to education free and compulsory, at least primary education, already be protected in jobs that make their health at risk (Articles 28, 29, 32).
- Every minor has the right to have an identity : a name and a nationality (Articles 7,8).
- With respect to abuse , children will be protected against kidnappings, withholding, abandonment, abuse, torture, mistreatment, trafficking and prostitution (Articles 11, 19, 34, 35, 37).
- Regarding the child’s health , children have the right to life, survival and development, access to all health services and a decent standard of living (Articles 6, 23, 24, 27, 33).
- In times of war , they will not participate in armed conflicts, if they attend, they will have special protection (Articles 22, 38, 39).
- The last articles deal with the commitment of the states to disseminate the Convention and the creation of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (Articles 42-45) and on the ratification of the agreement, the entry into force and the countries that adhere (Articles 46-54).
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