INSTITUTE OF CULTURAL CABANAS
The Hospicio Cabanas is a neoclassical building, emblematic of the Mexican city of Guadalajara. He served as a home for orphans from the Nineteenth Century to twentieth century. Inside some of the most important murals by Jose Clemente Orozco preserved. It was declared in late twentieth century a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Today it is home to the Cabanas Cultural academy.
The main architect of this hospice, named in its infancy House of Charity and Mercy was the bishop Juan Cruz Ruiz de Cabanas and Crespo, who comes from Spain to the capital of New Galicia in the eighteenth century. The design of the building was due to one of the best architects of the time, Manuel Tolsa. Construction began in the early nineteenth century, participated Jose Gutierrez, academic merit of the Academy of San Carlos, with material handling, and the master builder Jose Cipres. The institution began work even without being completed its construction on early nineteenth century and operating normally until August because not escape the turmoil of the War of Independence, because during the race Brigadier Jose de la Cruz installed there the Citadel Guadalajara, with their soldiers and animals. Again the place is taken as a barracks, this time in the mid of nineteenth century by an outbreak of santannismo led by Blancarte. Ramon Fernandez Somellera to inform the Superior Council of Welfare hospice, it was organized into seven departments and the following people; poor adult men, sixteen; poor, forty eight adult women; poor, one hundred and thirty seven children; poor girls, one hundred and eighty two; Crèche, thirty one boys and girls; Domicile or Home Visit -those unable or poor patients who could not move from his house one hundred and ten; College Department of Pensioners and alumna do asylee taking classes in reading, writing and arithmetic, among other matters.
The Palace of Mining of Mexico City, also designed by Tolsa, especially in the vestibular porch tucked the entrance courtyard, the side doors centered with the side panels of the facade and the top patio access with the main element of the composition; the chapel, in the case of the Hospice, according to Victor Jimenez study also Jimenez reports that the two main axes longitudinal and transverse cross at the center of the dome, which defines a third axis vertical, which is the most important height . Its maximum length, in turn, occupies a third of the breadth of the Hospice. Ignacio Diaz Morales highlighted the solution of the dome as something never seen until that moment in Guadalajara, consisting of transition through a spherical section between the circle of the spandrels, and a smaller diameter, in harmonious proportion to the building, which is the rudeness of the colonnade of the dome. This uproots on two series of sixteen columns, Ionic and Doric interior external, both charted in Roman style. The auction is an almost perfect hemisphere ending that originally had a sculpture of Charity. The vaults are built on transverse arches and semicircular lunettes, stilted. The building has abundant corridors with arcades and bays ten yards per arranged symmetrically lateral third, three large patios and square pillars. Jimenez emphasizes that the floor of this building is a sample of the fully modern architecture, clearly related to what was done in the city of Mexico at that time.
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