Today we are going to discuss about the trichotomy of Routes and the way they function in the telecommunication business. The telephone companies around the world make use of international telecoms routes to send traffic to each other. They can be diversified into three categories being white, grey and black. These routes depict the legality in the telecommunication sector. Let’s start with the clean Route or the white route. It is a clean route as in, the source of the route and the destination of the route are both legal in the respective region. This means that the region where it is generated from treats the route as legal and the destination of the route is also treated as legal. The government of both countries grants access for such routes.
The opposite of the earlier one is called a black route. This route is illegal in the region where it is derived from and also the destination of the route. A Sim box is an unofficial device which uses multiple mobile telephones and GSM cards for PSTN connectivity, while connecting to the internet by conventional means. Using multiple sim cards in the sim box causes the network providers to bear heavy losses. As they are illegal in most regions, they are secretly operated in third world calling destinations as the black route where conventional private branch exchange lines are not available to VoIP operators due to hostile local regulatory environment. In India an internet service licensee is not granted access to have PLMN connectivity as voice communication to and from a telephone connected to PSTN which is following E.164 numbering is prohibited in India. Usage of licensing restrictions and regulations ensures that the interconnection between the PSTN network and internet is not permitted. The Indian government delivers a profit making monopoly to International Long Distance service providers licensed under the section 4 of Indian telegraph act. The only carriers officially allowed to carry international long distance traffic into India.
The third kind is the Grey route, which is common in voice over internet protocol technology. Grey routes are arrangements that are different from the regular course of business between the licensed telecom companies in each country. This is a route which is legal for one country or the party on one end, But illegal on the other end. The grey part of the route is generally at the far end where the call is terminated. There are normal arrangements to deliver the call from the subscriber to the sending carrier and between the sending carrier and the cable operator for the trunk part of the call. It appears as if the call is originated locally, a domestic call rather than an international call. There are a multiple types of grey routes.
In order to explain the essence of the three routes, we are going to take the example of telecom routes from USA to India. In India, a telecom monopoly is granted to some large corporations. Therefore, all legal telecom traffic to the country is subject to the rates imposed by these corporations. The traffic of telecom from USA is sent to the VoIP routers via IP and terminated to the Indian PSTN. However this process is illegal in India, yet completely legal in USA. A route of this kind is said to be grey in nature.