7. Explain the evolution in correctional treatment from the mid-20th century to today.
Unlike the adult criminal justices, the Juvenile justice system is of very recent origin. The juvenile justice system, practices and procedures have developed over the last century and this has resulted to the now juvenile justice system as practiced by the US and other countries across the world. Prior to the mid-20th century, juveniles were incarcerated as adult. Starting from mid-20th century, from the beginning of 1940s, the US separated juvenile detention facilities from the adult ones. During this time as juveniles were being segregated from adult ones, some jurisdictions created separate court systems for young offenders. Eventually, in mid-20th century, detached procedural standards were developed in juvenile courts. The young offenders were deemed not to be guilty of a crime but were considered to be adjudicated as juvenile offenders. This saw the US create a different legal system for young offenders from that of adults. Since then, now all U.S. jurisdictions have separate juvenile courts today.
8. In 150 words or more discuss the ingredients of effective aftercare programs.
There have been growing concerns about overcrowding in secure juvenile correctional facilities, high rates of recidivism and escalating costs of confinement. All these have fueled renewed interest in bringing change and innovative programming to juvenile aftercare/parole philosophy and practice. Aftercare programs are the reintergrative services that prepare out-of-home placed juveniles for reentry into the community by establishing the necessary collaboration with the community and its resources to ensure the delivery of prescribed services and supervision. The process begins after sentencing and continues through incarceration after which there is the creation of a seamless set of systems to prevent recurrence of the antisocial behavior. Components of aftercare include juveniles receiving services and supervision and then secondly the offenders should receive intensive intervention during incarceration during their transition to the community.
There is the Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Programs developed in the late 1970s. This research and development initiative was designed to assess, test and disseminate information on intensive juvenile aftercare program models for chronic serious juvenile offenders who initially require secure confinement. The project is seen as one means to assist public and private correctional agencies in developing and implementing promising aftercare approaches
9. In 150 words or more elaborate on the pros and cons of the I-Level classification system and the Quay classification system.
I-Level classification system
This is an integral part of youth treatment programs in the US and other parts of the world including England, Yugoslavia, and Canada. The Interpersonal level classification system was developed in 1979 by Warren and is seen as the most complex of the offender internal classification programs.
- Separating the juveniles within institutions
- It consists of developmental classification and a response-style typology
- Experts warn that the I-Level is significantly related for males, but not for females
Quay classification system
This is a dimensional approach to behavioral, emotional and social problems of juveniles through empirical analysis of data from behavioral problem checklist (BPC).
- It uses empirical data and can be proved scientifically.
- Inmates are separated on personalities, background and behavior patterns thus causing fewer management problems but coexist with greater harmony
- Inmate behavior under this system is determined through participant observation, interviews with staff and inmates.
- Analysis of the data is done though disposition of incident reports.
- The program units are not composed of inmates from all three of the Quay units
- Quay unit behavior of inmates may change when the inmates participate in program units
- Requires mental health professionals
- Requires relatively large amount of time for each juvenile case.
10. In 150 words or more what are the four life positions in Transactional analysis?
Transactional Analysis (TA) is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy. TA is basically described as integrative as it has elements of psychoanalytic, cognitive, humanist approaches. TA was first developed by psychiatrist Eric Berne in late 1950s. TA has four life positions that a person can hold. He further suggested that holding a particular psychological position has reflective implications on how a person operationalizes his/her own life.
The positions Erick Berne suggested are as follows:
1) I am OK and you are OK – He suggested this as the healthiest position about life and it simply means that I feel good about myself and that I feel good about others too and their competence.
2) I’m OK and you are not OK – In this position, I feel good about myself but I see others as damaged or less than OK and it is usually not healthy
3) I’m not OK and you are OK – In this position, the person sees himself/herself as the weak one but the others are a definitely better than self. The person is this kind of state will easily accept abuses as being OK albeit unconsciously.
4) ‘m not OK and you are not OK – this is seen as the worst position to be in. it simply means that I am in a terrible position as well as the rest of the world too. This thus implies that there is no hope for any ultimate supports.
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