Altaf Hussain Haji
Backwardness is defined as lack of normal development especially social development. Social development includes poverty alleviation, citizenship, peace, democracy and governance. The percentage of poverty below poverty line is 25.7% for rural sector, 13.7% for urban sector in India. Overall poverty is 21.9%. In an analytical article Altaf Hussain writes that in Jammu and Kashmir state, the percentage below poverty line (BPL) is 11.5% from rural sector and 7.2% for urban sector, over all percentage is 10.3%. The percentage of backwardness index of rural sector of Kashmir is 20.5%, for Jammu 40-05%, Ladakh 8 7.5.% The overall backwardness index of J&K is 36.36%. For Urban sector, it is 50% for Kashmir, 37.5% for Jammu division and it is 87.5% for Ladakh. Total backwardness index is Kashmir – 40% Jammu – 60% Ladakh 87.5%.
The percentage of poverty:
“There are also so many social and infrastructure indicators which will help to determine backwardness. As you are aware that the Jammu Kashmir is the northern state of India. The state is richly endowed with natural resources. The state ranks 6th in area and 19th in population among states and UT’s of the country. The percentage of the population living below poverty line (BPL) is estimated by expert group constituted by Planning Commission on the basis of socio-economic survey on household consumer expenditure conducted by Nation Sample Survey Office (NSSO) under the union ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, government of. According to the percentage of population below poverty line by Tendulkar’s Methodology 2011-12 is 25.7 for rural sector and 13.7 for urban sector in India. The overall poverty in the country is 21.9 percentage. In Jammu Kashmir State the percentage of population below poverty line by Tendulkar’s Methodology 2011-12is 11.5 for rural sector and 7.2 for urban sector. The overall population below poverty line in Jammu Kashmir State is 10.3 percentage. The fact of figures Jammu Kashmir namely pucca structures of housing data, electricity facility, total literacy rate and female literacy rate tells us a story of backwardness. These indicators play an important role in social and infrastructure development.
The backwardness index based on the following indicators namely:
- Pucca house in Jammu and Kashmir by sector wise and district wise classification
- Facilities of electricity in Jammu and Kashmir by sector wise and district wise classification
- Literacy rate as per Census data 2011 in Jammu and Kashmir by sector wise and district wise classification and
- Female literacy rate as per Census data 2011 in Jammu and Kashmir by sector wise and district wise classification
The indicators(1) and (2) mentioned above are infrastructure indicators of Jammu Kashmir while for indicators (3) and (4) are social indictors of Jammu Kashmir. Here the two sources of data are used for estimating backwardness index of Jammu Kashmir State by sector wise and division wise.
There are targets and achievements of various schemes in which above parameters which can affect in terms of development and improvement. The target and achievement of any improvement is considered current development.
The current percentage of achievement is considered as bottom percentage and target to achieve in future or fixed time is consider as top percentage. These percentages will play an important role of constructing estimation for the development processes. The data only the bottom percentages is required for constructing backwardness index.
The top percentage of the parameters of the pucca house, facility of electricity, literacy rate and female literacy rate is considered as higher achievement and the bottom percentage of the parameters of the pucca house, facility of electricity, literacy rate and female literacy rate is considered as lower development.
It is observed by above parameters that the backwardness index of the rural sector of Jammu Kashmir of shows that there is higher backwardness in Ladakh division as compared to other two divisions of State Jammu Kashmir.
The overall percentage of backwardness index:
“The percentage of the backwardness index of rural sector of Kashmir division is 20.5 percent, for Jammu division is 40 percent and for Ladakh division is 87.5 percent. The overall backwardness index of State Jammu Kashmir is 36.36 percent which also shows that rural sector of Jammu division and Ladakh division is lagging behind as compared to Kashmir division. The backwardness index of the urban sector of Jammu Kashmir shows that there is once again the higher backwardness in Ladakh division as compared to other two divisions of State Jammu Kashmir. The percentage of the backwardness index of urban sector Kashmir division is 50 percent, for Jammu division 37.5 percent and for Ladakh division is 87.50 percent. The overall backwardness index of state Jammu Kashmir is 47.72 percent which also stated that urban sector of Kashmir division and Ladakh division is lagging behind as compared to Jammu division. The total backwardness index of Jammu Kashmir shows that there is once again the higher backwardness of Ladakh division as compared to other two divisions of state Jammu Kashmir. The percentage of the total backwardness index of Kashmir division is 40 percent, for Jammu division 60 percent and for Ladakh division is 87.5 percent. The overall backwardness index of State Jammu Kashmir is 55.68 percent which shows that Jammu and Ladakh division of Jammu Kashmir have higher backwardness as compared to Kashmir division of Jammu Kashmir. It is mentioned here that this percentage is not factual position of the state as it is based only four parameters mentioned above. It may be varied by using more and more parameters and gives real picture to the planers and researchers. Basically, data is important sources for information which gives picture of the region and population. Here I want to say that there are so many statistics parameters which have no data available in our state which I, as a statistician find difficult to involve such parameters for estimation of backwardness”.
Need for overhaul:
“The percentage of backwardness of the State Jammu Kashmir mention above stated that there is need to overhaul the system of delivery of institutions for better development, strong enforcement and implementation in order to get better results for society. Further the government policies and programs should emphasize on schemes of poverty, generation of unemployment and income opportunities of infrastructure and basis facilities to meet the need of poor people in State Jammu Kashmir in order to reduce the backwardness of the state. Jammu Kashmir is largely a backward state, the alarming backwardness over the years is with so many social, economic and other problems. These problems in Jammu Kashmir are due to poor education setup, week delivery of health sector, poor rural and urban development, ignorance of service sector like tourism, poor infrastructure of institutions, lack of counselling, lack of promotion of heritage and culture, poor industrial setup, lack of basic minimum facility to the people and high corruption in social setup of different kinds and at different levels”.
[Courtesy: daily Rising Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, July 18, 2018].
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