High Voltage power modules are the answer if we want to replace the traditional power efficient power modules with compact, efficient power modules. Industrial control systems have high voltage requirements. The integration of Power-over-Ethernet into these systems is encouraging designers to convert their legacy 24 V power to the 48 V demanded by the new technology. These systems need the input voltages to be converted to 5 or 3 V (or even lower) to supply the electronics. The space being restricted, modern control systems use closely packed, modular units to house the component parts. This has resulted in a hike in order for electronics that do not require space-consuming forced cooling. A new generation of wide-input voltage, integrated silicon power supplies are becoming easily available that can withstand large voltage spikes without incurring damage.
These overvoltage occurrences are so common that engineers have been advised to design their systems to withstand them. It becomes challenging because so-called high-voltage regulators are particularly sensitive to overvoltage. There is little difference between their operating and absolute maximum voltage ratings.
One of the ways to protect the voltage regulator is by using a protective clamp that limits the voltage spikes to a level below the component’s absolute maximum rated voltage However, these clamps add to the cost, occupy more space, and extend the design schedule thereby reducing many of the benefits for using a silicon-based voltage regulator. The application of these devices is not limited to industrial control systems. They can also be useful when a designer wants an extra margin of safety and robustness.
Pshoto senors are electronic control units that automatically adjust the output level of electric lights based on the amount of light detected. They identify the presence of visible light, infrared transmission and ultraviolet energy. Most Photo Sensors consist of semiconductor possessing a property called photoconductivity, in which the electrical conductance differs depending on the intensity of radiation striking the material.
Photo Sensors are used in multiple electronic devices, circuits, and systems, including optical disk drives, electric eyes, machine vision systems, wireless LAN, optical scanners, fibre optic systems and remote control devices. They are a form of automatic control that restores or accompanies occupant control. The benefit of automatic control is that it saves energy throughout the day without any human intervention. When combined with dimming electronic ballasts, photo sensors can dim lights based on the amount of daylight entering a room. There can be problems when occupants are disturbed by insufficient lighting levels or by sudden light level fluctuations. Meeting the occupants’ visual and comfort needs as well as their expectations about good lighting is of great importance for photo sensors.