BC10000–4000 Development of settlement into cities and development of skills, such as wheel and
pottery making and improved methods of cultivation.
5500–3000 Earliest recorded date of Egyptian calender; first phonetic writing appears;
Sumerians develop a city-state civilization.
3000–2000 Pharaonic rule begins in Egypt; completion of the construction of the Great Pyramid
3000–1500 The most ancient civilization on the Indian subcontinent, the sophisticated and
extensive Indus Valley Civilization, flourishes in what is today Pakistan.
900–800 Phoenicians establish Carthage: The Iliad and Odyssey was composed by the Greek
400–300 Pentateuch-first five Books of the Old Testament evolve in final form.
300–251 Invention ofMayan calendar in Yucatan-more exact than older calenders.
101–51 Juleus Caesar (100–44 BC) invades Britain (55 BC) and conquers Gaul, France.
776 First Olympiad in Greece.
753 Rome founded.
490 Battle of Marathon, the Greeks defeated the Iranians/Persians.
327–26 Invasion of India by Alexander, Battle of Hydaspes.
221 Chin-Hung Ti ‘Universal Emperor’ in China, GreatWall of China completed.
55 Invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar, the Great Roman General.
44 Assassination of Julius Caesar by Brutus.
4 Birth of Jesus Christ.
AD29 Crucifixation of Jesus Christ.
43 Roman conquest of Britain.
570 Birth of ProphetMuhammad at Mecca.
622 Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina (“hijira”), Beginning of Hijira Era (Muhammadan calender) on July 15.
800 Charlemagne crowned Roman Emperor at St. Peter’s.
871 Accession of Alfred the Great to the throne of Britain.
901 Death of King Alfred the Great.
1066 Battle of Hastings; Norman invasion of England. William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandly, defeated the English king Harold II at Hastings.
1215 Magna Carta or the Great Charter signed by King John II at Runnymede in England on June 15.
1280 Gunpowder invented by Roger Bacon.
1338 The Hundred YearsWar broke out; it lasted upto 1453.
1431 Joan of Arc, a brave French peasant girl, obtained victory over the English at Orleans. She was burnt alive at the stakes.
1443 The Black death i.e., plagues broke out in England.
1453 The capture of Constantinople (the home of classical learning) by the Ottoman Turks compelled the Greek scholars to flee to Italy and other West European countries, where they spread the knowledge of Greek philosophy and literature. This was the beginning of Renaissance in Europe.
1486 Bartholomew Diaz rounded the cope of Good Hope.
1492 Columbus sailed on his first expedition to the West Indies which later led to the discovery of America (the NewWorld).
1498 Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese, discovered the seat route to India via the Cape of Good Hope.
1517 Beginning of reformation.
1529–36 Reformation in England under Henry VIII.
1564 Birth of Shakespeare.
1571 Battle of Lapanto; Turks defeated by the Christian League.
1577 Drake, the famous English Admiral; started his voyage round the world for the first time and phindered Spanish ships and ports in South America.
1588 Admiral Drake defeated the Spanish ‘Armada’; England became the ‘Mistress of the Seas’.
1600 Establishment of the British East India Company in India (31st December).
1605 Gunpowder plot in England to blow up the English parliament.
1616 Shakespeare passes away.
1649 Trial and execution of Charles I, beginning of Commonwealth.
1649–60 The Commonwealth and the Protectorate in England.
1660 Restoration of monarchy in England.
1665 The great plague in London.
1679 Habeas Corpus Act.
1688 The Glorious or Bloodless Revolution in England. Despotic rule of the Stuarts ended, and the Parliamentary rule began. Establishment of parliamentary supremacy and abolition of the Divine Rights of Kings.
1704 Battle of Blenheim; Marlborough and Eugene inflicted a crushing defeat on the
1707 Union of England and Scotland.
1763 Treaty of Paris; It ended the Seven Years War (1756–63); weakened France, made England a great colonial power.
1776 Declaration of American Independence and formation of a Federal Republic of 13 states called the Union States of America (July 4).
1783 Treaty of Versailles; England recognised the independence of the United States of America.
1789 George Washington elected First President of USA. Beginning of French Revolution; Fall of the Bastille Fort (July 14).
1798 Battle of the Nile. The English under Nelson gained victory over the French.
1805 Battle of Trafalgar; Death of Nelson. Battle of Austerliz – Napolean Bonaparte rounted a combined army of the Russians and the Austrians.
1815 Battle ofWaterloo – Napolean was defeated and exiled to St. Helena. Congress of Vienna, it aimed at rearranging the map of Europe; The Vienna settlement proved unsatisfactory, because it disregarded national claims.
1821 Death of Napolean at St. Helena (May 5).
1827 Battle of Navatino; the allied fleets of England, Russia and France destroyed the Turkish fleet; This victory practically secured the independence of Greece.
1833 Emancipation Act of 1833; It abolished slavery in the British dominions.
1837 Accession of Queen Victoria to the throne of England.
1839 Introduction of Penny Postage system in England by Sir Rowland Hill: Aden annexed by England.
1854 The Crimean War began, Russia attacked Turkey; England and France came to the rescue of Turkey.
1861 American CivilWar started, Abraham Lincon elected 16th President of USA.
1863 Slavery abolished in America.
1869 Suez Canal opened for traffic.
1885 General Gordon captured and slain at Khartoum.
1899 Outbreak of the Russo-Japanese war.
1905 Battle of the sea of Japan; Japan inflicted a crushing naval defeat on Russia; a wave of nationalism spread in Asia.
1911 Chinese Republican Revolution; Amundsen reached South Pole (December 14)
1914 Outbreak ofWorld War-I (August 4)
1916 Battle of Jutland (Naval Battle). The British Grand Fleet under Admiral Jellico defeated the German Fleet under Admiral Scheer.
1917 (March/Febuary) Revolution in Russia; the Czar abdicated and later assassinated; reformist Mensheviks came into power (Prince Lvov, Kerensky). (November/October) Revolution in Russia: Revolutionary Bolsheviks came into power (Lenin).
1918 End ofWorldWar I (November 11)
1919 The Paris Conference; the Treaty of Versailles.
1920 Foundation of the League of Nations (January 10)
1921 The Irish Free State established with the status of a Dominion like Canada (December 6).
1923 Turkish Republic proclaimed with Kemal Ataturk as its First President.
1924 Lenin died, and power passed into the hands of Stalin in Russia.
1925 Treaty of Locarno (between Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Belgium).
1928 Kellogg Pact (signed in Paris by the principal powers of the world for the prevention of war; it had no effect).
1933 Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany.
1935 War between Italy and Abyssinia (Ethiopia); Italy annexed Abyssinia (Ethiopia); Plebiscite in Saar.
1939 Germany invaded Poland: Outbreak ofWorld War II (September. 1).
1940 Fall of France after German invasion (June 5); Italy enteredWorld War II (June 11).
1941 Hitler invades Russia (June 22): Framing of the Atlantic Charter (August 14); Japan attacked Pearl Harbour (Hawaii Islands) (December 7); USA entered World War II (December 8); China entered World War II (December. 10) Air raids by Japan on Rangoon (December 22).
1942 Capture of Singapore by Japanese forces (Febuary. 15); Battle of Coral Sea, Japanese fleet suffered heavy losses at the hands of the American fleet (May 3); Battle of Stalingrad (September. 19).
1943 Defeat of Germany at Stalingrad (Febuary. 8); Battle of the Bismarck Sea, America defeated Japan in a naval battle (March 4); Invasion of Italy by the Allies, Armistice between Italy and the Allies (September 3).
1944 Allied forces landed in Normandy under the supreme command of General Ike (Eisenhower); (D-Day) (June 6); Liberation of Paris (August 25).
1945 Execution of Mussolini (April 22); Unconditional surrender of Germany to the Allies (May 7); USA dropped atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki of Japan (August 6 and August 9); Unconditional surrender of Japan (August 14); World War II ended
(August 14); Foundation of UNO (October 24).