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What is the periodic table? understand groups, Periods, Blocks

If we arrange the items the 109 or more in accordance with the increase in atomic numbers, we get a specific form or a symmetric distribution, we find similarity between the item on top of the existing value with the item that appears at the bottom of where the next IX. This is defined as the repeated ironing miaeh properties of cursed insisted was first discovered by the English chemist John Newlands, 1864 systems elements according to their atomic weights increase, Julius Lothar Meyer noted that repeats, this time in the physical attributes of elements.

accomplishment in this area by the chemical experimental Dmitry necromancies in 1869 Sun in elements with attributes in a table called the periodic table, also known as Mendeleyev, where systems of items with similar qualities and properties of the columns, the name of groups or factions, and in horizontal rows have been named sessions and according to the atomic weights increase.
       
Empty boxes in the periodic table meaning elements have not been discovered by scientists.

What is the atomic number of the element?
The atomic number of the element is the number of electrons in one atom of the element, or the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom in the periodic table of each element follows the previous by adding one electron and one proton plus the number of existing neutrons.
And this is why the anomaly of a pair or two pairs of adjacent elements of the growing base of atomic weight.


For example:
The iodine in Group (b) follows the tellurium in Group 6 (b) Although the atomic weight of iodine is 127, which is less than that of tellurium (127.6), it all goes back to that each element is found in nature in the case of a mixture of isotopes.     
Mendeleev developed the chemical elements in the right places for iodine is located in the same group for the rest of the halogens, and the atomic number of iodine is (35) to (32) tellurium, a two km will become true if we consider Mendeleev setting Atomic basis of arrangement of elements instead of atomic weights.

Groups: A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. Groups usually have more significant periodic trends than periods and blocks, explained below. Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group generally have the same electron configurations in their valence shell.
Periods: A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. Although groups generally have more significant periodic trends, there are regions where horizontal trends are more significant than vertical group trends, such as the f-block, where the lanthanides and actinides form two substantial horizontal series of elements.
Blocks: The different regions of the periodic table are sometimes referred to as blocks in recognition of the sequence in which the electron shells of the elements are filled.
Categories:The elements can be conveniently classified according to their shared physical and chemical properties into the major categories of metals, metalloids and nonmetals. Metals are generally located to the left and bottom of the periodic table.


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