Cervical cancer start in the cells lining the Cervix (the lower part of the uterus (womb) this is sometimes called the uterine cervix. The fetus grow in the body of the uterus (the upper part) the cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).
� The cervix has two different parts and is covered with two different types of cell
� Endo Cervix: Close to the body of uterus convered with glanduler cells.
� Exo cervix: Close to the vagina which is covered with squamous cells.
These two cells meet at a place called transformation zone, which change as you get older or if you give birth.
Most cervical cancers begins in the cells in the transformation zone, these cells do not suddenly change into cancer, instead normal cells of the cervix first gradually develop.
Although cervical cancers start from cell with pre-cancerous changes, only some of the women with pre-cancer of the cervix will develop into cancer. It usually takes several years for cervical pre-cancer to change to cervical cancer. But can also happen in less than a year. For most women pre-cancerous cells will go away without any treatment still, in some women, pre-cancer turn into true cancers. Treating all cervical pre-cancers can prevent almost all cervical cancers.
TYPES OF CERVICAL CANCER
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
2. Adenocarcinoma cell
(1) Squamous cell carcinoma (9 out of 10) are squamous cell carcinoma, these cancers develop from cells in the exocervix, which has features of squamous cell under microscope, begin at transformation zone, where endocervix and exocervix join
(2) Adenocarcinoma are cancers which develop from gland cells, develop from the mucous producing glad cells of endocervix
(3) Adenosqoumous carcinoma less common. It is common between 30 to 40 years older
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
? Abnormal irregular vagina bleeding
? Pain during intercourse (sex)
? Vagina discharge that may be heavy, possibly have a foul odour
? Increase urinary frequency
? Pain during urination
? Bleeding after sexual intercourse
? Bleeding after a pelvic examination
? Bleeding after menopause
? Pelvic pain not related to menstrual cycle
? Bleeding between regular menstrual period
CAUSES OF CERVICAL CANCER
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) is found in about 99% of cervical cancers.
? Some of them cause a type of growth called papilloma, commonly known as warts (vagina warts)
? HPV can spread from one person to another during skin to skin contact, spreads is through sexual activity, including vagina, anal, and even oral sex.
? Other types of HPV are called high risk types because they are strongly linked to cancers including cancer of the cervix vulva, vagina in women, penile cancer in men, cancer of the anus mouth, throat in both men and women.
Sometimes HPV is common, and in most people the body can clear the infection by itself does not go away but develop into chronic infection.
? Smoking: Tobacco by product have been found in the cervical mucous of women who smokes. Researchers believe that these substances damage the DNA of Cervix cells may contribute to development of cervical cells. Also makes the immune system less effective in fighting HPV
? Having a weakened immune system (HIV/AIDs) unable to fight the HPV
? Chlamydia infection affects the reproductive system spreads by sexual contact, which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease.
? A diet low in fruit and vegetables
? Over weight may likely to develop adenocarcinoma
? Long term use of oral contraceptives (birth control) IUD (women who have ever used IUD have lower risk, the protective effect remain after the IUDs were removed.
? Family history of cervical cancer
? Having multiple sexual partners
? Younger than 17 years at your first full term pregnancy
� Regular pelvic examination
� Pap smear test to detect abnormal cells in and around the cervix
� Colposcopy: To check cervix for abnormal areas, a vinegar like solution is applied to the cervix and an instrument like microscope called colposcope is used to vitualise the cervix, iodine may be used to coat the cervix, is a procedure called schiller test healthy cells turn to brown while abnormal cell turn to white or yellow.
� Biopsy may be done by removing a small amount of cervical tissue for examination.
� Loop electrosurgical (an electric) wire loop is used to slice off a thin, round piece of tissue
� Endo cervical curettage. A curette is used to scrape tissue from inside the cervical opening
� Conization or cone biopsy this allows to see the spread of the abnormal tissue beneath the surface of the cervix, can also be used for treatment of pre-cancerous lesion if the entire abnormal areas can be removed. Dilatation and curettage requires.
TREATMENT OF CERVICAL CANCER
� Surgical (Hysterotomy is done if the woman decide not to have children in future the entire uterus, cervix, sometimes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, lymph nodes are all removed.
� Radiotherapy (radiation therapy) high � energy rays to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing
� A well proven way to prevent cervix cancer is to have testing (screening) to find pre-cancers before they can turn into invasive cancer.
The pap test (pap smear and the HPV (human papilloma virus) if pre-cancer is found. It can be treated.
� Use condom either male or female
� Quit smoking: Not smoking is another important way to reduce the risk of cervical pre-cancer and cancer.
� Get the HPV vaccine: Vaccine are available that can protect young people against certain HPV infection. Reduce your risk of a sexually transmitted infection (STI )